What shape is the popliteal fossa and where is it found?
Found on the posterior side of the knee
What are the names of the four borders of the popliteal fossa?
What makes up the superiomedial border of the popliteal fossa?
What makes up the superiolateral border?
The biceps femoris
What makes up the inferiomedial border?
Medial Head of the Gastrocnemius
What makes up the inferiolateral border?
Lateral head of the Gastrocnemius and Plantaris
What makes up the floor of the popliteal fossa?
Formed by the posterior surface of the knee joint capsule and by the posterior surface of the femur
What is the roof of the popliteal fossa made of?
What are the contents of the popliteal fossa?
A good way of remembering the contents of the popliteal fossa from medial to lateral is by using the mnemonic "Serve And Volley Net Balls"
Semimembranosus (medial border)
Common Fibular Nerve
Biceps Femoris (lateral border)
What are the most superficial contents of the popliteal fossa?
Tibial and Common Fibular Nerves
They are both branches of the sciatic nerve
What vein empties into the popliteal vein at the popliteal fossa?
The small saphenous vein
What is the deepest structure of the popliteal fossa?
The popliteal artery
What are the two major causes of an appearance of a mass in the popliteal fossa?
Aneurysm of the popliteal artery
What is Bakers Cyst?
How does this usually arise?
What could happen that would cause complications?
Inflammation and swelling of the semimembranosus bursa
Usually arises in conjunction wih arthritis of the knee
Usually selve resolves
Cyst can rupture and produce symptoms similar to deep vein thrombosis.
What is an aneurysm?
Why does a popliteal artery aneurysm have consequences for other contents of the popliteal fossa?
A dilation of an artery, which is greater than 50% of the normal diameter
The popliteal fascial layer (the roof of the popliteal fossa) is tough and non extensible
What is particularly susceptible to compression from the popliteal artery?
How would this clinically present?
The Tibial Nerve
Leg anethesia or a loss of leg motor function
How can an aneurysm of the popliteal artery be detected?
Obvious palpable pulsation in the popliteal fossa with abnormal arterial sounds
What are some other causes of a popliteal mass in the popliteal fossa?
Deep Vein Thrombosis
Adventitial Cyst of the Popliteal Artery
Various Neoplasms (such as rhabdomyosarcoma)
What is represented by the purple highlighted area?
What is represented by the area highlighted in green?
What is represented by the area highlighted in blue?
What is represented by the area highlighted in brown?
Medial head of gastrocnemius
What is represented by the area highlighted in orange?
Lateral head of gastrocnemius