Module 1: Endocrine System Key Terms Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Module 1: Endocrine System Key Terms Deck (27)
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Anterior pituitary hormone that influences the activity of the adrenal cortex

Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)

1

Hormone produced by the adrenal cortex that regulates Na+ reabsorption and K+ secretion by the kidneys

Aldosterone

2

A hormone such as testosterone that controls male secondary sex characteristics

Androgen

3

The glandular part of the pituitary gland

Anterior pituitary (Adenohypophysis)

4

Hormone produced by the hypothalamus and released by the posterior pituitary; stimulates the kidneys to reabsorb more water, reducing urine volume

Antidiuretic hormone (ADH, also called vasopressin)

5

Hormone released by the thyroid. Lowers blood calcium levels only when present at high (therapeutic) levels

Calcitonin

6

Glucocorticoid produced by the adrenal cortex

Cortisol (hydrocortisone)

7

Disease caused by deficient insulin release or by insulin resistance, leading to inability of the body cells to use carbohydrates

Diabetes Mellitus (DM)

8

Chief hormone produced by the adrenal medulla. Also called adrenaline.

Epinephrine

9

Hormones that stimulate female secondary sex characteristics; female sex hormones

Estrogens

10

Gonad-stimulating hormones produced by the anterior pituitary

Gonadotropin

11

Hormone formed by the alpha cells of pancreatic islets; raises the glucose level of blood

Glucagon

12

Hormone that stimulates growth in general; produced in the anterior pituitary; also called somatotropin

Growth Hormone (GH)

13

Steroidal or amino-acid based molecules released to the blood that act as chemical messengers to regulate specific body functions

Hormone

14

A hormone that enhances the carrier-mediated diffusion of glucose into tissue cells, this lowering blood glucose levels

Insulin

15

A hormone secreted by the pineal gland; secretion peaks at night and helps set sleep-awake cycles; also a powerful antioxidant.

Melatonin

16

Condition resulting from under active thyroid gland

Myxedema

17

A catecholamine neurotransmitter and adrenal medullary hormone, associated with sympathetic nervous system activation

Norepinephrine (NE)

18

Hormone released by the parathyroid glands that regulates blood calcium level

Parathyroid hormone (PTH)

19

A hormone-secreting part of the diencephalon of the brain thought to be involved in setting the biological clock and influencing reproductive function

Pineal gland

20

Neural part of the pituitary gland; part of the neurohypophysis

Posterior pituitary

21

Hormone partly responsible for preparing the uterus for the fertilized ovum

Progesterone

22

Adenohypophyseal hormone that stimulates the breasts to produce milk

Prolactin (Prolactin)

23

A lipid-based chemical messenger synthesized by most tissue cells; acts locally as a paracine

Prostaglandins

24

Male sex hormone produced by the testes; during puberty promotes virilization, and is necessary for normal sperm production

Testosterone

25

Anterior pituitary hormone that regulates the secretion of thyroid hormones

Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH)

26

Iodine-containing hormone secreted by the thyroid gland; accelerates cellular metabolic rate in most body tissues

Thyroxine (T4)