Module 6: Urinary System, Fluid, and Electrolyte Balance Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Module 6: Urinary System, Fluid, and Electrolyte Balance Deck (22)
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1

State of abnormally high hydrogen ion concentration in the extracellular fluid.

Acidosis

2

Hormone produced by the adrenal cortex that regulates Na+; reabsorption and K+; secretion by the kidneys.

Aldosterone

3

State of abnormally low hydrogen ion concentration in the extracellular fluid.

Alkalosis

4

Hormone produced by the hypothalamus and released by the posterior pituitary; stimulates the kidneys to reabsorb more water, reducing urine volume.

Antidiuretic hormone (ADH, also called vasopressin)

5

A hormone released by certain cells of the heart atria that reduces blood pressure and blood volume by inhibiting nearly all events that promote vasoconstriction and Na+; and water retention.

Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP)

6

Double-walled cup at end of a renal tubule; encloses a glomerulus. See Glomerular capsule.

Bowman’s capsule

7

Chemical substance or system that minimizes changes in pH by releasing or binding hydrogen ions.

Buffer

8

Chemical substances, such as salts, acids, and bases, that ionize and dissociate in water and are capable of conducting an electrical current.

Electrolyte

9

(1) Cluster of capillaries forming part of the nephron; forms filtrate;

(2) odor-specific processing unit in olfactory bulb.

Glomerulus

10

Rate of filtrate formation by the kidneys.

Glomerular filtration rate (GFR)

11

Cells of the distal part of the ascending limb of the loop of Henle and afferent arteriole located close to the glomerulus; involved in blood pressure regulation (via release of the hormone renin) and autoregulation of GFR.

Juxtaglomerular complex (JGC)

12

Urination, or voiding; emptying the bladder.

Micturition

13

Structural and functional unit of the kidney; consists of the glomerulus and renal tubule.

Nephron

14

Pertaining to the kidney.

Renal

15

Process the kidney uses to maintain a nearly constant glomerular filtration rate despite fluctuations in systemic blood pressure.

Renal autoregulation

16

The volume of plasma from which a particular substance is completely removed in a given time, usually 1 minute; provides information about renal function.

Renal clearance

17

The movement of filtrate components from the renal tubules into the blood.

Tubular reabsorption

18

The movement of substances (such as drugs, urea, excess ions) from blood into filtrate.

Tubular secretion

19

Tube that carries urine from kidney to bladder.

Ureter

20

Canal through which urine passes from the bladder to outside the body.

Urethra

21

A smooth, collapsible, muscular sac that stores urine temporarily.

Urinary bladder

22

System primarily responsible for water, electrolyte, and acid-base balance and removal of nitrogenous wastes.

Urinary system