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Flashcards in Module 11 Deck (21)
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1

Define solubility

the maximum amount of solute that can dissolve in a given amount of solvent

2

solute

substance that we are dissolving

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solvent

substance we are dissolving the solute in

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solution

when the solute and solvent are mixed together

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requirements for dissolving a solid

solvent molecules must be attracted to the solute molecules so strongly that the solvent molecules can get between the solute molecules and pull them apart from each other

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requirements for dissolving a liquid

the solvent molecules need only be a little attracted to the solute molecules because the solvent does not need to separate the solute molecules very much, they only need to get between the solute molecules

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requirements for dissolving a gas

the solvent molecules must be attracted to the solute molecules enough to pull the solute molecules closer to one another

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the solubility of any solute depends on

the identity of the solute
the identity of the solvent

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saturated solution

a solution in which the maximum amount of solute has been dissolved

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precipitation

the process by which a solid solute leaves a solution and turns back into its solid phase

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for solid solutes, solubility usually -- with increasing temp

increases

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solubility of --- substances is not affected by temperature

liquid

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solubility of gases -- with increasing temp

decreases

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increasing pressure -- the solubility of --

increases; gases

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pressure does not affect solubility of -- or --

liquids or solids

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exothermic process

a process that releases heat-- becomes warm to the touch

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endothermic process

a process that absorbs heat-- becomes cool to touch

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molality

number of moles of solute per Kg of solvent

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freezing point depression

when a solute is dissolved in a solvent the solution always has a lower freezing point than the pure solvent

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freezing point depression constant

physical constant that depends solely on the chemical nature of the solvent (Kf)

21

Boiling point elevation

when a solute is dissolved in a solvent the boiling point of the resulting solution is higher than that of the pure solvent