what is the cardiovascular system composed of?
heart, muscular pump and blood vessels
what are the two loops of circulation? Describe them
systemic and pulmonary
systemic: carries oxygenated blood from the left ventricle, through the arteries, to the capillaries in the tissues of the body. From the tissue capillaries, the deoxygenated blood returns through a system of veins to the right atrium of the heart.
pulmonary: carries deoxygenated blood away from the right ventricle of the heart, to the lungs, and returns oxygenated blood to the left atrium and ventricle of the heart.
where is the precordium located?
on anterior chest overlying heart and great vessels
what are the great vessels?
major arteries and veins that are connected to the heart
top of heart is called what? Bottoms of heart is called?
tell me the whole flow of blood in and out of the heart
- deoxygenated blood from the body enters superior/inferior vena cava and goes into right artrium
- blood then goes to the right ventricle through the pulmonary artery to lungs to become oxygenated
- Out of the lungs from the pulmonary veins and to the left artirum and down to the left ventricle
- from ventricle to the aorta and to the rest of the body
what is the pericardium?
tough, fbrous, double walled sac that surrounds and protects the heart
what are the two layers of the heart?
- myocardium-muscular wall of heart that does the pumping
2. endocardium-thin layer of endothelial tissue that lines inner surface of heart chambers/valves
how many valves does the heart have and what is their function?
4 valves in heart: two atrioventricular valves (AV) and two semilunar valves. They separate the four chambers and prevent back flow
what happens during systole?
its the pumping phase where the AV valves close to prevent blood coming back to atria
what happens during diastole?
ventricles relaxed and AV valve are open. Pressure in atria is higher than in ventricles so blood pours into ventricles
what is the first early filling phase called?
what is the active filling phase called?
presystole or atrial systole
what is isometric contraction?
the contraction of ventricular walls against a closed system works to build pressure inside the ventricles to a high level
what are murmurs?
gentle, blowing, swooshing sound that can be found on chest wall
- Murmurs are due to increased blood flow through a normal valve, backwards blood flow etc
- Murmurs are common in children
what is cardiac output?
volume of blood in each systole multiplied by the number of BPM
what are developmental considerations for infants and children?
- Fetal heart functions early; it begins to beat at the end of 3 weeks gestation.
- Lungs are non-functional, but fetal circulation compensates for this
- Oxygenation takes place at placenta, arterial blood returned to R side of heart
- Oxygenated blood rerouted two ways:
- 2/3 shunted through opening in atrial septum (foramen ovale) into L side of heart, where it is pumped out through aorta
- Rest of oxygenated blood is pumped by R side through pulmonary artery -but detoured through ductus arteriosus to aorta.
- Once born, blood pumped through lungs instead of placenta, foramen ovale closes within first hour, and ductus arteriosus closes within 10-15hrs
- Hearts position is more horizontal than in adults (therefore apex is higher)
what are the developmental considerations for pregnant women?
- Blood volume increases by 30-40%
- This expansion causes increase in SV and CO and increase in pulse rate by 10-15BPM
- Due to peripheral vasodilation, arterial blood pressure decreases
- BP drops to lowest point during second trimester and then rises
what are the developmental considerations for older adults?
- Systolic BP increases as result of stiffening of large arteries, which is causes by calcification of vessel walls (cannot store volume ejected)
- Size of heart stays the same, but L ventric. Wall thickens to accommodate vascular stiffening that creates increased workload on heart
- No significant change in diastolic pressure
- No resting heart rate changes
- No CO at rest change
- Ability of heart to withstand CO with exercise is decreased.
what is the subjective data for cardiovascular?
- Chest pain
- Dyspnea (SOB)
- Orthopnea (SOB when lying flat)
- Cyanosis or pallor (blue or pale)
- Past cardiac history
- Family cardiac history
Personal habits (cardiac risk factors: smoking, alcohol)
what are abnormalities with cardiovascular?
uncommon noise in chest, faint/shallow pulse, heave or lift is a forceful thrusting of ventricle during systole
what are functional murmurs caused by and are they normal?
Functional murmurs are caused by increased blood flow in heart (eg. Anemia, pregnancy, fever etc.)
Both common in healthy children!
what is an average HR for infants?
120-140 per minute and approx. 170 when crying by 70-90 when asleep
when is orthostatic hypotension more common and what is it?
more common in older adults and it is a sudden drop in BP when rising to sit or stand
what can cause one to be more prone to orthostatic hypotension?
if youre dehydrated, anemic, prolonged bed rest, or recent blood loss
what are the 5 anatomical landmarks of the heart?
A-atrial P-pulmonic E-erbs T-tricuspid M-mitral