what are the functions of the skin?
- protection: skin minimizes injury from physical, chemical, thermal, and light wave sources
- prevention and penetration: stops invasion of microorganisms and loss of water/electrolytes within body
- perception: skin is sensory surface for touch, pain, temp
- temperature regulation: allows heat dissipation through sweat glands and heat storage through subcutaneous insulation
- identification: hair, skin colour, fingerprints
- communication: blushing, blanching (pale)
- wound repair: allows cell replacement of surface wounds
- absorption and excretion: allows limited excretion of some metabolic wastes
- production of vitamin D: skin is surface where UV lights converts cholesterol into vitamin D
what does the term comorbidity mean?
simultaneous presence of two chronic conditions or diseases in a patient
list some abnormalities for hair, skin, nails
- abnormal colour in skin
- lesions on scalp
- splitting nails
- extreme dryness in lips/face
what are the general components of objective data for skin?
pigmentation, temp., moisture, texture, thickness, edema, mobility and turgor, vascularity and bruising, and lesions
what is ecchymosis?
what is psoriasis?
patches of abnormal skin
what is pruritus?
what is pallor?
When the skin takes on the colour of collagen as a result of inadequate oxygenated hemoglobin in the circulating blood (eg. pale)
what is cyanosis?
a bluish tinged skin
a blush or sudden reddening of the face and neck
a yellowish tinged skin
whats a pressure ulcer?
result of localized deficiency in the blood supply to the tissue
whats a hematoma?
a collection of extravasated blood trapped in tissues of the skin or an organ
skin stays pinched or moves back slowly; may indicate dehydration
a condition in which angle between the nail and nail bed is 180 degrees or greater
fluid that accumulates in the intercellular spaces that is not normally present (swelling)
commonly appear in clusters and may look like a rash. Usually flat to touch and don’t lose colour when you touch on them (usually red, brown purple)
what is different for an infant regarding skin compared to an older adult?
infants skin is much more thin, smooth and elastic (more permeable than an adult) but this means infant is at greater risk for fluid loss
what are the developmental changes for pregnant women with skin?
- change in hormone levels results in increased pigmentation in areolae and nipples, vulva, and sometimes in midline of abdomen or face.
- metabolism is increased
- peripheral vasculature dilates to dissipate heat
what are the developmental changes for older adults with skin?
- loses elasticity, folds and sags
- around ages 70+, looks thin, dry and wrinkled
- elastin, collagen and subcutaneous fat are lost as well as muscle tone