what waist circumference can put women and men at risk for heart disease or stoke?
women: 88cm (35 inches) or greater
men: 102 cm (40 inches) or greater
is there any test that can diagnose MALNUTRITION and why?
no test can be used. This is because there are too many factors that may be altered. Factors such as: fluid balance, liver function, kidney function, and presence of disease
what is albumin and pre-albumin indicators for?
albumin levels is an indicator of chronic illnesses and pre-albumin levels is a preferred indicator of acute conditions
what are the dietary/health history questions you should ask a patient regarding nutrition?
- health status
- cultural background
- religious food patterns
- socioeconomic status
- personal food preferences
- psychological factors
what are a few aspiration precautions?
- give patients who aren’t alert within 24hrs post stroke nothing by mouth and monitor closely
- right diet for patient
- sitting up right
- patient should be screened for swallowing deficits as soon as alert and ready for oral intake
- assess patients for signs/symptoms of dysphasia (cough, change in voice after swallowing)
- ask about difficulty with chewing and swallowing
what is the correct procedure during feeding a patient?
- keep upright
- use rocking motion of utensil on patients tongue
- place food on stronger side as well as head tilted to stronger side so hemiplegia doesn’t occur (one-sided weakness)
what is the correct procedure after feeding a patient?
- patient should remain upright for 30 min after
- check for pocketing of food
- patient’s should perform oral hygiene
what does silent or asymptomatic aspiration refer to?
passage of food/liquid into trachea and lungs without producing a productive cough or other signs consistent with aspiration
whats one risk for silent aspiration?
the older you get, the less of an urge to cough and therefore aspirations can occur more frequently
what is aspiration?
The act of trying to get a breath
what is the most important measure to prevent aspiration?
Place patient on nothing by mouth (NPO) until dysphasia evaluation can be performed and “normal” diet can resume
you perform oropharyngeal suctioning when..
patient can cough effectively- but can’t clear secretions
what are the expected outcomes following the oropharyngeal suctioning procedure?
- no gurgling sounds heard in pharynx on inhale/exhale
- drooling is diminished or absent
- no gastric secretions from mouth
- SpO2 improves or remained at patient’s normal baseline
what are the appropriate settings for suction pressure for different age groups?
infants: 80-100mm Hg
children: 100-120mm Hg
adults: 100-150mm Hg
* the younger the person, the lower the pressure*