Module 18- Blood Disorder part 2 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Module 18- Blood Disorder part 2 Deck (58):
1

What is the most common genetic disorder of the blood?

Sickle Cell Disease

2

Sickle Cell Disease is a ________ form of hemolytic anemia?

hereditary

3

What ethnicities are primarily affected by sickle cell disease?

African American
Mediterranean

4

What test is done to see if you are a sickle cell carrier?

Electrophoresis

5

Signs and symptoms of sickle cell disease start appearing within the first ______mo with ____ and _____ observed?

6
anemia
vasculopathy

6

Sickle cell disease is due to ______ hemoglobin

defective

7

In sickle cell disease fluid ______ results and blood _____ occurs?

viscosity
stasis

8

Due to blood viscosity and blood stasis _____ and ______ can result?

thrombosis
infarction

9

A hematocrit score for a sicle cell pt. can range between ____ and ___%

18
30

10

Normal life span of RBC?

90-120 days

11

Life span of a sickle cell RBC?

10-15

12

Which form of sickle cell disease do children and adolescence have?

Sickle Cell Crisis

13

What do we as clinicians do if someone experiences a sickle cell crisis?

stop tx
call med services
administer oxygen

14

What is the major organ affected in sickle cell disease?

kidney

15

What procedure may provide a cure for young patients with symptomatic sickle cell disease?

allogeneic stem-cell transplant

16

What do sickle cell pts. take daily until age 6 to prevent infection

penicillin

17

You could use a chemotherapy med called ___ to increase ______ thereby decreasing the permanent formation of sickle cells?

hydroxyurea
hemoglobin F

18

There is a decreased ______ and an increased _____ seen radiographically with Sickle Cell Disease?

radiodensity
osteoporosis

19

Sickle Cell Disease can present radiographically as a _____ trabecular pattern appearing as "____ _____" rows with large _____ spaces?

coarse
step-ladder (horizontal)
marrow

20

Sickle Cell pts. will have a generalized ______ of the oral tissues?

pallor

21

______ ______ of the mouth can lead to a sickle cell crisis

periodontal involvement

22

Do we use epi in LA on sickle cell pts.?

low dose

23

Can we use nitrous on sickle cell pts?

yes with oxygen greater than 50%

24

What does polycythemia mean?

increase in number and concentration of RBC above normal

25

Hemoglobin and Hematocrit are increased to more than ____% in polycythemias?

50-55%

26

What are the 3 general categories of polycythemia?

relative
primary
secondary

27

In relative polycythemia we loose ____ which leads to a corresponding loss of ____

plasma level
RBC's

28

What can cause relative polycythemia (fluid loss)

dehydration
diarrhea
vomiting
sweating

29

In relative polycythemia the ______ of cells increases due to?

concentration
loss of plasma level

30

Which polycythemia is an actual increase in RBC count and hemoglobin value?

Polycythemia Vera (primary polycythemia)

31

What else is elevated in polycythemia vera?

WBC
platelets

32

Blood viscosity ________ in polycythemia vera?

increases

33

Polycythemia Vera is a _____ condition resulting from a _____ disorder in which _____ RBC's proliferate?

neoplastic
bone
primitive (reticulocytes)

34

The tongue, mucous membranes, and gingiva are what color in polycythemia vera?

purplish-red

35

What is the treatment for polycythemia vera?

chemo
radiation
phlebotomy

36

Pts should avoid ____ supplements and ____ medications with a history of polycythemia vera?

iron
aspirin

37

Secondary polycythemia is also called ____

erythrocytosis

38

What patients can have a secondary polycythemia?

COPD
smokers
heart conditions

39

A decrease in the total number of WBC's is termed a?

leukopenia

40

What are the 2 conditions that can lead to leukopenia?

infections
Disease/intoxification of bone marrow

41

What is a rare, serious disease involving the destruction of bone marrow

Malignant Neutropenia

42

What is the term for a malignant neutropenia?

Agranulocytosis

43

What is the most extreme abnormal cause of leukocytosis?

leukemia

44

What is often administered to a patient with lymphocytopenia?

gamma globulins

45

Bleeding disorders can be due to platelet _____ or ______

dysfunction
numbers (low)

46

Where are the clotting factors produced?

liver

47

What is the oldest known hereditary bleeding disorder?

hemophilia

48

What hemophilia is "Classic Hemophilia"

Hemophilia A

49

Hemophilia A is caused by a reduction in the amount/function of factor?

VIII

50

What % of people with hemophilia have type A?

85

51

Hemophilia B is also called " _____ _____"

Christmas Disease

52

Hemophilia B is a deficiency of factor _____

IX

53

Both hemophilia A and B are ___ linked ___ genetic diseases?

X
recessive

54

What disease is characterized by a prolonged bleeding time in the presence of a normal platelet count?

Von Willebrand's Disease

55

Patients with Von Willebrands have a defect in platelet ___ and the ______ pathway?

function
coagulation

56

Extraoral signs of Von Willebrands include?

petechiae of skin

57

What does Hemarthroses mean?

bleeding into soft tissue of joints

58

What is the most common hereditary disorder of platelet function?

Von Willebrand's Disease