Module 15- Respiratory Problems Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Module 15- Respiratory Problems Deck (45):
1

What is more common: upper or lower respiratory disorders?

upper

2

Upper respiratory disorders are cause by?

infections or allergens

3

An example of an upper respiratory disorder would be?

Rhinitis (cold)
Influenza (flu)
Hay fever

4

Upper respiratory disorders affect what 4 structures?

Nose
Sinuses
Pharynx
Larynx

5

Lower respiratory disorders affect what 2 structures?

Trachea
Lungs

6

Examples of lower respiratory disorders are?

bronchitis
Pneumonia
TB
Asthma
Cystic Fibrosis

7

What type of microorganism causes pneumonia most often?

virus

8

What is the term for a fungal pneumonia?

Pneumocystis pneumonia

9

What type of patients are likely to get a fungal pneumonia?

immunocompromised (HIV/AIDS)

10

CAP stands for?

community acquired pneumonia
(person-to-person)

11

HCAP stands for?

Healthcare-associated pneumonia
(nosocomial)

12

HCAP occurs ____ - ______ after hospital admission

48-72hrs

13

HCAP is the main cause of _____ in hospitalized patients?

death

14

Bacteria in _____ _____ can serve as a reservoir for lung infections?

periodontal pockets

15

What is the treatment for fungal pneumonia?

Sulfa Drugs

16

What is the cause of TB?

rod shaped mycobacterium tuberculosis

17

Where does TB infection begin?

alveoli of lungs

18

TB survives best in a _____ oxygen environment?

highly

19

The immune response to TB will limit further growth after how long?

2-10 wks

20

Approximately _____-____% of people with latent TB and NOT treated will develop TB disease?

5-10

21

What are the 2 tests for TB

TST - tb skin test
IGBA- Interferon -gamma release assay (blood test)

22

Dental Treatment is permitted on a TB patient when?

patient is free of active disease

23

Asthma is a ___ respiratory disorder?

chronic

24

What is the most common type of asthma?

extrinsic asthma

25

An allergic stimulus leads to activation of airway ______ _____ cells?

epithelial mast

26

Atopic or Allergic Asthma is one type of immunoglobulin _____ mediated reaction?

E

27

Immunoglobulin _____ provides the primary defense against environmental allergens?

E

28

What are the 3 steps in how allergens trigger asthma?

IgE attaches to Mast Cells
Allergen attaches to IgE
Mast Cell releases asthma mediators

29

If an allergen attaches to mast cells THROUGHOUT the body we have a _____ anaphylaxis?

systemic

30

What are the NAEPP 4 levels of severity and frequency of asthma?

Intermittent
Persistent-mild
Persistent-moderate
Persistent- severe

31

What are the 2 types of medications for asthma?

long term
quick relief

32

What are 3 common medications that are asthma attack triggers we should stay away from using in the dental office?

Aspirin
Sulfite-containing anesthetics like epi
NSAIDS

33

Beta-2 agonist asthma inhalers decrease ______ and _____?

saliva
biofilm PH

34

What are the 2 diseases of COPD?

chronic bronchitis and emphysema

35

What is the primary etiology of COPD?

inhaling tobacco smoke (80-90% mortality)

36

Chronic Bronchitis is a cough with expectoration for at least how many months out of a year?

3

37

Emphysema patients have a hard time breathing?

out

38

Bronchitis patients have a hard time breathing ?

in and out

39

The term "______ _____' is representative of a person with chronic bronchitis?

blue bloater

40

Emphysema is a _____ or _____ of the air spaces distal to the ____ _______

distention
widening
terminal bronchioles

41

A person with emphysema has a ______/_____ cough?

dry/nonproductive

42

The term "_____ ______" is used to describe a person with emphysema?

pink puffer

43

You should put the chair in the _____ or ______ position for a patient with COPD

upright
semi-upright

44

Cystic Fibrosis is an autosomal ______ disorder. This means?

recessive
both parents must have it or be carriers

45

Cystic Fibrosis patients have chronic _____ and ____ _____ infections

sinusitis
bacterial lung