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Flashcards in Module 2 - History Deck (41)
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1

Consequence of small size of societies?
(before agriculture)

that disease was a much less important threat to health than environmental factors like famine or danger.

2

The Domestication of plants and animals: changes to society and health

beginning ~10,000 BP
communities in western Asia- domesticate plants and animals (beginning of the Neolithic revolution)
- reliable food supply - communities remain in same place over time
- cities

3

Neolithic Revolution

the wide-scale transition of many human cultures from a lifestyle of hunting and gathering to one of agriculture and settlement which supported an increasingly large population

4

With greater numbers of people living together...

social stratification, development of wealth and poverty
- increase in diseases (domesticated animals served as hosts to disease that spread to humans)

5

For centuries before the 1900s
What were the principal threat to human populations?

- Viral and bacterial infections

6

Ecological requirements:

- A reservoir for the pathogen - animal or human

- Dense human population to maintain infection

- Contact sufficient for the spread of pathogens from infected to vulnerable populations

7

With the decline of the Roman empire and the decreased complexity of trade and communication, Europe experienced a ?

long period of relative good health.

8

When did this period of relatively good health end for Europe?

This ended as trade networks to Asia were re-established in the 14th century. (BLACK DEATH)

9

Columbian Exchange

After 1500, the encounter between the Old World and the New World had the greatest interaction between?

between previously separate ecosystems

10

Columbian Exchange effect on Old World?

The Old World got new crops-maize, potatoes etc…that fuelled a population explosion in Europe and elsewhere
but intro of new crops and increase of pop'n created new vulnerabilities

11

Virgin Soil Epidemic

arrival of Europeans to America and other isolated regions
smallpox (and other diseases) exploded in populations with no experience with these diseases

12

Populations at risk of diseases brought by columbian exchange?

populations at risk have had no previous contact with these diseases, thus they were immunologically almost defenseless

13

Ascendancy of Smallpox

17th century - plague declined (too successful)
smallpox overtook it as most fearful pathogen

14

Edward Jenner

1790s - vaccination for smallpox
Rubbed pus from cowpox postule of an infected dairy maid into the scratch of a young boy-exposed to smallpox 6 wks. later –immunity conferred

15

Who brought Edward Jenner's finding to the west?

Lewis and Clark (1804)

16

Thomas Malthus 1766-1834

- recognized danger of increase of pop'n from intro of new crops

predicted an eventual disaster as food production would eventually be unable to match demand

"limits to growth"

17

What contributed to Thomas Malthus being discredited?

By the 1900s improvements in agriculture contributed to him being discredited

18

John Snow - 1854

1854 bad outbreak of Asiatic Cholera in London
- 3 days = 127 deaths (eventually 500 deaths)

He isolated source of infection to a water pump on Broad Street
- pioneering work in epidemiology

19

from 1500 on the Columbian Exchange brought fundamental change to?

The people and environment around the world (Crosby)

20

Columbian Exchange
who profitted?
who declined?

for the most part the Old World profited while New World societies declined, especially with regard to pathogens (e.g., smallpox)

21

Florence Nightingale

nurse in 1850s Crimean War
emphasized sanitation
washing reduced infection rates drastically
deaths 60% -> 4%

22

1860's Dr Robert Lister

developed concept of antiseptic surgery

23

McKeown thesis (1800s):

that nutrition and sanitation are more important than medicine

24

1880s - the Germ Theory of Disease
(defn and 2 people)

Based on the principle that specific diseases were caused by specific organisms

Louis Pasteur
Robert Koch

25

Robert Koch (Germany)–

identified microorganisms that caused tuberculosis and cholera

26

Before GERM THEORY...

disease was thought to have been caused by “spontaneous generation”

27

With the outbreak of WW1...nutrition

so many volunteers for military service showed signs of malnutrition that researchers began to study nutrition scientifically

28

The first time that conflict exceeded disease in any major conflict

WW1
vitamins

29

1919

Pandemic Influenza - spanish flu
50 -100 million deaths
1/3 of humanity infected
then dissapeared

30

1920s and the rise of chronic disease

1921 - heart disease = leading cause of death
1927 - cancer in top 3 causes of mortality in US
1928 - Alexander Fleming discovers penicillin (mold that killed bacteria)
1940s - antibiotic revolution