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A famous person: Rudolf Virchow (1821-1902)

young pathologist
lived with coal miners
recommended remediation of social, economic and working conditions(SOCIAL CONDITIONS rather than medical response) .. and was promptly fired.


“Health care system … only accounts for ___ of health outcomes”



Population health refers to heath of popn as measured by ?

health status indicators and as influenced by social, economic, and physical environments, personal health practices, individual capacity and coping skills, human biology, early childhood development, and health services.


As an approach, Population Health focuses on the?
identifies the?
applies the?

the interrelated conditions and factors that influence the health of populations over the life course
, identifies systemic variations in their patterns of occurrence
applies the resulting knowledge to develop and implement policies and actions to improve the health and well-being of those populations”


Population Health major focus?

reduction of health inequalities and inequiteis between group


Holistic perspective -

physical, emotional, mental, and spiritual dimensions of health
- socio-political context is CRITICAL elememt


An Aboriginal health model
Three critical levels:

1) promixal
2) intermediate
3) distal


1) Proximal determinants -

health behaviours, physical environments, employment & income, education, food security


2) Intermediate determinants -

health care systems, educational systems, community infrastructure, resources, & capacities, cultural continuity, etc


3) Distal determinants

– colonialism, racism & social exclusion, self determination


Health disparities/inequities are ?

unfair and fixable differences in health status


Socio-economic gradient in health shows the ?

worst health for people living on the lowest incomes


Striking health disparities between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal peoples (Loppie Reading & Wien 2009)

higher rate of diabetes
- higher rate of tuberculosis
- higher rate of high blood pressure
- higher rate of depressive episodes
- higher rate suicide


“Mortality Transition”

– changes in how we (as a society) die


3 stages of Mortality Transition

a) The age of pestilence and famine
b) The era of receding pandemics
c) The age of degenerative and man-made diseases