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Main models in health studies:

- biomedical model
- public health model
- health promotion model
- population health model


World Health Organization (WHO) definition of health

“A state of complete physical, social, spiritual and mental well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity … Health is a resource for everyday life … It is a positive concept emphasizing social and personal resources as well as physical abilities"


3 Main Levels of Analysis

a) Cellular
b) Individual
c) Societal


Biomedical Approach

illness/disease explained by biological, physiological and genetic factors


Biomedical perspective changes our WHO definition

Biomedical definition = the absence of disease


BIOMEDICAL model is a ___ approach rather than a ___ one.

Palliative or treatment approach to health rather than a preventative one


Public Health Model

“Public Health” viewed within an ecological context of human populations
shifted over 200 years


McKeown pointed out that improved life expectancy did not result from ... but rather?

better medicine but rather by improvements in sanitation, housing standards and nutrition


Public health “is about the ?
and the ?

prevention of disease or injury from occurring/recurring” and the preservation, promotion and improvement of health across whole populations


Public Health focuses outside of ? and on?

Focus outside hospitals/clinics and on communities instead


Public Health Model - WHO definition

the science and art of promoting health, preventing disease, and prolonging life through organized efforts of society


“Health promotion is the process of?

of enabling people to increase control over, and to improve their health”


Health Promotion model reflects importance of?

individuals taking control of their own health


Health Promotion

Ottawa Charter 1986, became an international movement!
Five priority areas:

a) Build healthy public policy
b) Create supportive environments for health
c) Strengthen community action for health
d) Develop personal skills, and
e) Re-orient health services


Health Promotion
since 1986 - shift toward?

shift toward balancing individual responsibility with societal and government responsibilities


Population Health

illness/disease explained by societal factors
focuses on interrelated conditions that influence health over life course
policies and actions to improve health


Population Health measured in terms of?

health indicators
death rate, life expectancy