Flashcards in Module 3 Deck (17)
Main models in health studies:
- biomedical model
- public health model
- health promotion model
- population health model
World Health Organization (WHO) definition of health
“A state of complete physical, social, spiritual and mental well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity … Health is a resource for everyday life … It is a positive concept emphasizing social and personal resources as well as physical abilities"
3 Main Levels of Analysis
illness/disease explained by biological, physiological and genetic factors
Biomedical perspective changes our WHO definition
Biomedical definition = the absence of disease
BIOMEDICAL model is a ___ approach rather than a ___ one.
Palliative or treatment approach to health rather than a preventative one
Public Health Model
“Public Health” viewed within an ecological context of human populations
shifted over 200 years
McKeown pointed out that improved life expectancy did not result from ... but rather?
better medicine but rather by improvements in sanitation, housing standards and nutrition
Public health “is about the ?
and the ?
prevention of disease or injury from occurring/recurring” and the preservation, promotion and improvement of health across whole populations
Public Health focuses outside of ? and on?
Focus outside hospitals/clinics and on communities instead
Public Health Model - WHO definition
the science and art of promoting health, preventing disease, and prolonging life through organized efforts of society
“Health promotion is the process of?
of enabling people to increase control over, and to improve their health”
Health Promotion model reflects importance of?
individuals taking control of their own health
Ottawa Charter 1986, became an international movement!
Five priority areas:
a) Build healthy public policy
b) Create supportive environments for health
c) Strengthen community action for health
d) Develop personal skills, and
e) Re-orient health services
since 1986 - shift toward?
shift toward balancing individual responsibility with societal and government responsibilities
illness/disease explained by societal factors
focuses on interrelated conditions that influence health over life course
policies and actions to improve health