2 factors that influence healthy ageing
biological and modifiable
examples of modifiable factors in ageing
nutritional intake, weight, tobacco, alcohol, salt, BGL, BP
what is physical activity beneficial in manageing?
the physical, function, mental and cognitive decline
which 3 vaccinations are important for older people?
influenza, pneumococcal and shingles
what yearly screenings are important?
- hearing and vision
- rectal exam and PSA blood test
- mammogram and cervical screening
which aspects of nutrition should be increased for older poeple?
vitamin D, fibre and calcium
what happens to our immune system as we age?
it becomes less effective at fighting off disease
which parts of the immune system are most affected?
lymphocytes, b cells and t cells
what happens to lymphocytes?
they are less effective at producing effector and regulatory immune responses
what do lymphocytes protect the body from?
microorganisms, foreign tissue, cell mutations and alterations
what happens to t-cells?
they become less response to antigens
what are antigens?
foreign toxins that produce an immune response
what happens to b-cells?
they produce less antibodies
what are antibodies?
proteins that neutralise pathogens
why do older people heal slower?
they have less immune cells to bring about healing
why are older people more at risk of getting cancer?
their immune system is no longer as effective at detecting and correcting cell defects
what is ‘stress-age syndrome’?
neurohormonal and immune alterations as well as tissue and cellular changes resulting in lessened ability to cope in stressful situations as well as increased risk of infection
why may an older person not show typical signs and symptoms of inflammation and infection?
- immune system changes
- loss of central temperature control mechanisms
- decreased muscle mass
- loss of shivering ability
atypical signs of infection in the older person
- change in mental status
65yr+ should be vaccinated for
influenza and pneumococcal
70-79 yrs should be vaccinated for
the aged care system in australia is managed where?
through the myagedcare website
which commission governs the aged care sector? what do they govern this with and with which legislation?
The Aged Care Quality and Safety Commission governed with the Aged Care Quality Standards under the Aged Care Act 1997
Which program helps to provide ongoing and short term care and support services to older people?
the Commonwealth Home Support Program
what services do the CHSP provide?
help with housework, personal care, meals and food preparation, transport, shopping, allied health, social support and planned respite
what are home care packages?
tailored support, clinical and personal care services to meet an individual’s assessed needs
what do home care packages provide?
more structure, over 4 levels of care level 1: basic care needs level 2: low level care needs level 3: intermediate care needs level 4: high care needs
4 aspects of caring for diverse groups
recognition, negotiation, collaboration and validation
acknowledging preferred name/title
ask for preferences, choices and needs regardless of language barrier/cognitive ability
seeking support from interpreters and organisations
acknowledging feelings and emotions and having a sympathetic presence
examples of diverse groups in australia
- culturally and linguistically diverse
- aboriginal and torres strait islander
- rural/remote living
- homeless/at risk of becoming homeless
what is advance care planning?
the documentation of a person’s goals, values, beliefs and preferences so that the person’s wishes may still be carried out should they no longer be able to make decisions for themselves
why is advance care planning so important?
it allows the older person freedom in their way of living and ensures maximum health promotion
what is dignity of risk?
the belief that any person regardless of their age and ability have the right to self determination and risk taking within their life
dignity of risk is essential to what?
maintaining dignity and self esteem
having a duty of care is NOT about creating restrictions and rules but about…
giving options and respecting autonomy and dignity of the person and the choices that they make
a nursing diagnosis consists of
problem, aetiology and defining characteristics
steps to making a diagnosis
- analyse available data
- identify health problems, risks and strengths
- formulate diagnostic statement