what kind of disease is dementia? does it have a cure?
a terminal disease with no cure
what is demtnia?
a progressive neurodegenerative disease resulting in an irreversible loss of cognitive function
4 common causes of dementia
- alzheimer’s disease
- vascular dementia
- lewy body disease
- frontotemporal dementia
is dementia a normal part of ageing?
at what age can you be diagnosed with dementia?
any time, from 30s onwards
what term is used to describe dementia that is diagnosed in people under 65?
younger onset dementia
dementia is the ____ leading cause of death in australians
which percentage of residents in aged care facilities are living with dementia?
how many australians were living with dementia in 2020?
dementia is a ___ term for…?
an umbrella term for over 100 conditions that cause symptoms of dementia
alzheimer’s disease accounts for what % of dementia in australia?
alzheimer’s disease is caused by?
an abnormal build up of proteins in and around brain cells
alzheimer’s results in
impaired thinking, memory and behaviour
average life expectancy for those with alzheimer’s
7 to 10 years
alzheimer’s is linked with?
how does alzheimer’s often begin?
with short term memory loss and difficulty in finding the right words for everyday objects
later symptoms of alzheimer’s
impaired judgement, disorientation, confusion, behaviour changes, difficulty swallowing, speaking and walking
vascular dementia contributes to what % of dementia in asutralia
vascular dementia is caused by?
issues with circulation of blood to the brain
the onset of vascular dementia can be…
sudden with less predictable progression
4 risk factors for vascular dementia
- untreated hypertension
- high cholesterol
- irregular heart rhythmns
symptoms of vascular dementia
impaired judgement, inability to plan steps needed to complete a task.
depression, mood swings, epilepsy
frontal lobe dementia accounts for what %
frontal lobe dementia is caused by
degeneration in one or both frontal lobes of the brain
what are the frontal lobes of the brain involved in?
- social behaviour
- self control
damage to the frontal lobe can lead to
reduced intellectual ability, personality, behavioural and emotional changes
frontal lobe dementia is more common amongst?
males and those with younger onset dementia
symptom of FLD (social and hygiene)
- talking to strangers or exhibiting otherwise ‘embarrassing’ behaviour
- decline in attentiveness to hygiene
personal changes FLD
personality, reasoning, mood and langugage
loss of ‘normal’ emotional responses
dementia with lewy bodies %
what is dementia with lewy bodies caused by?
the debilitation and death of nerve cells in the brain as a result of abnormal structures (lewy bodies) developing inside them
what is the progression of DwLB? who is it more commonly seen in?
- more rapid than alzheimer’s
- more common in men
fluctuating cognition and visual hallucinations are symtpoms of?
dementia with lewy bodies
tremors and difficulty in concentrating, confusion and depth/distance perception
dementia with lewy bodies
connection between parkinson’s disease and dementia
30-60% of people with the disease will develop dementia late in the course of the disease
do people with parkinson’s always develop dementia?
hallucinations, problems with planning, sequencing, decision making and distance/depth perception are symptoms of?
parkinson’s disease dementia
alcohol related dementia is AKA
alcohol dementia is caused by?
consumption of dangerous levels of alcohol resulting in irreversible brain damage
personality changes, poor memory recall, balance issues and decrease initiative and spontaneity are all symptoms of?
alcohol related dementia
Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease is caused by?
the presence of abnormal proteins in the brain called prions
prevalence of CJD
1 in a million australians
average onset of CJD
life expectancy of CJD
weeks to months following onset of symptoms
behavioural changes, blindness, weakness, loss of balance and coordination, issues walking and speaking and muscle spasms are all symptoms of?
- difficulty concentrating and completing tasks
- recalling phone numbers, appointments and daily activities
- unsteady gait, walking, balance and coordination issues
HIV associated dementia
how long may the assessment/diagnosis process of dementia take?
one element of diagnosis is?
does cognitive testing confirm a doagnosis?
no, but they do assist in the diagnosis
what other tests are used to diagnose dementia?
CT scans, Mri, BLOOD TESTS
4 examples of cognitive screening tests
psychogeriatric assessment scales
mini mental state examination
rowland universal dementia assessment scale
Kimberely indigenous cognitive assessment
most widelt used cognitive assessment tool
MMSE normal score
higher score indicating greater cognitive impairment
the RUDAS is recommended for use with those who?
are from culturally and linguistically diverse backgrounds, or have limited education
what score in the RUDAS indicates possible cognitive impairment?
22 or less
the KICA-cog is ideal for use with?
older aboriginal and torres strait island people from remote areas
lower scores indicate increasing cognitive impairment (max score of 30)
what is BPSD?
behavioural and psychological symptoms of dementia
what does BPSD do?
categorises all dementia related behaviour, recommending appropriate interventions for each, such as medications
why do many health professionals call for the ban of BPSD?
it does not offer a person-centred philosophy
CEASE stands for
comfort, environment, activity, social contact, engaging