function of the kidneys
filter waste and excess ions out of the blood and into urine, deposit nutrients back into the blood
the kidneys maintain proper balance between…
water and salts
acids and bases
what hormone do the kidneys release?
what does erythropoietin do?
stimulates red blood cells production in bone marrow
what do kidney cells do in relation to vitamin D?
convert it to its active form
what happens to the kidneys as we age
they decrease in size
what does the kidneys’ decrease in size as we age lead to?
a decrease in renal blood flow and glomerular filtration rat (GFR)
what do the kidneys become less effective at as we age
exchanging substances and reabsoroption
the reduced function of the kidneys as we age consequently leads to an increased risk of what?
dehydration, hypontraemia and hyperkalaemia
low levels of sodium in the blood
high levels of potassium in the blood
why do older people need more vitamin d?
to assist in the intestinal absorption of calcium
signs of hypervolemia
oedema, sudden weight gain, lower urine output, shortness of breath
fluid volume depletion
signs of hypovolemia
low Bp, tachycardia, sweating, lightheadedness, fatigue, confusion
ensuring adequate fluid intake, promoting the use of vitamin D, promote strengthening of pelvic floor muscles, reviewing medications are all what?
nursing interventions to support the urinary system in older people
what happens to digestive enzymes and saliva as we age?
what happens to the liver and what does this lead to
less effective at handling cholesterol > increased incidence of gallstones
why does mouth health decrease?
enamel in teeth deteriorates
what happens to the tongue
decrease in size
decrease in muscle fibers/muscle mass
how can sarcopenia be prevented?
by regular exercise
what causes decrease in height
spinal vertebebrae shortens, intervertebral disks thin
encouraging independence and regular physical activity, education about osteoporosis and falls prevention, ensuring adequate vitamin d and calcium intake, assisting with mobility
nursing interventions to support neuromuscular in older people
epidermis in ageing
why does the epidermis thin during ageing?
cells contain less moisture, cell turnover rate declines
what causes skin dryness in ageing
decrease in sebaceous gland activity and tissue fluid