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Flashcards in Module 3 Deck (341)
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301

• entire neuronal circuitry that controls emotional behavior and motivational drives
• important communicating structures:
- brain stem via the medial forebrain bundle
- hippocampus to mammilary bodies via fornix

Limbic System

302

• first pathway hypothesized to explain appreciation and expression of emotion
• responsible for linking the experience and the expression of emotion
• cingulate cortex is the seat of emotional experience
• output from the cingulate cortex is conveyed via the fornix to the hypothalamus, where it is trans-lated into the expression of emotion through the autonomic nervous system

Papez Circuit

303

Functions of Limbic System

5 F’s
Fighting
Fleeing
Feeding
Feeling
Fucking/Fornicating

304

• stimulation evokes rage, passivity and excessive sexual drive
• highly hyper excitable - weak stimuli can cause seizures
• lesions cause ANTEROGRADE AMNESIA (inability to form new memories)
• provides signals for consolidation of memory

Hippocampus

305

• window of the limbic system
- receives neuronal signals from all portions of the limbic cortex, as well as from the neocortex of the temporal, parietal, and occipital lobes

• functions
- endocrine and vegetative functions
- involuntary movements
- rage, escape, punishment, severe pain and fear
- sexual activity

Amygdala

306

- results from bilateral destruction of the amygdala
- manifestations include
o hyperorality
o loss of fear
o decreased aggressiveness
o changes in eating behavior
o psychic blindness
o excessive sexual drive

Kluver Bucy Syndrome

307

• most poorly understood portion of the limbic system
• cerebral association area for control of behavior

Limbic Cortex

308

(Limbic Cortex)
lesions in the bilateral anterior temporal cortex will cause __

Kluver-Bucy syndrome

309

(Limbic Cortex)
lesion in bilateral posterior orbitofrontal cortex will cause __

insomnia, restlessness

310

(Limbic Cortex)
lesion in bilateral anterior cingulate and subcallosal gyri will cause __

extreme rage reaction

311

• acquisition of the information that gives an organism the ability to alter behavior on the basis of ex-perience
• two types:
o ASSOCIATIVE LEARNING
o NON-ASSOCIATIVE LEARNING

Learning

312

• also called simple learning
• modification of response to a repeated stimulus
• habituation occurs when the response be-comes weaker as the stimulus is perceived to have no particular importance
• sensitization occurs when the response is en-hanced in the even that an unpleasant or otherwise strong stimulus is given

Non-Associative Learning

313

• involves the ability to make a connection between a neutral stimulus and a second stimulus that is ei-ther rewarding or noxious
• two important examples:
o CLASSICAL CONDITIONING
o OPERANT CONDITIONING

Associative Learning

314

is a learning process in which behavior is sensitive to, or controlled by its consequences

Operant Conditioning

315

is a learning process in which an innate response to a potent stimulus comes to be elicited in response to a previously neutral stimulus; this is achieved by repeated pairings of the neutral stimulus with the potent stimulus

Classical Conditioning

316

• ability to store, retain and recall information and past experiences
• two types:
o EXPLICIT / DECLARATIVE MEMORY
o IMPLICIT / NONDECLARATIVE MEMORY

Memory

317

▪ associated with consciousness (conscious attention)
▪ dependent on the hippocampus and other parts of the medial temporal lobes
▪ depends on higher-level thinking skills such as influence, comparison, and evaluation
▪ memories can be reported verbally

Explicit/ Declarative Memory

318

▪ does not involve awareness
▪ retention does not usually involve processing in the hippocampus
▪ acquired slowly through repetition
▪ includes motor skills and rules and procedures
▪ procedural memories can be demonstrated

Implicit/ Nondeclarative/ Reflexive Memory

319

• stored in the brain by changing the basic sensitivity of synaptic transmission between neurons as a result of previous neural activity
• new or facilitated pathways are called memory traces

Physiology of Memory

320

- lasts seconds to hours
- memory traces are subject to disruption by trauma and various drugs

Short-Term Memory

321

- form of short-term memory that keeps information available, usually for very short periods

Working Memory

322

- stores memories for years and sometimes for life
- long-term memory traces are remarkably resistant to disruption

Long-Term Memory

323

What type of neuronal circuit is exemplified in short-term memory?

Reverberating Circuit

324

• initiation of chemical, physical, and anatomical changes in the synapses
• rehearsal enhances the transference of short-term memory into long-term memory
• new memories are codified into different classes of information
• postulated to be a function of the HIPPOCAMPUS

Consolidation of Memory

325

Physiologic Evidences of Long Term Memory

• increase in vesicle release sites for secretion of transmitter substance
• increase in number of transmitter vesicles released
• increase in number of presynaptic terminals
• changes in structures of the dendritic spines that permit transmission of stronger signals

326

• condition in which memory is disturbed or lost
• two basic types:
o ANTEROGRADE
o RETROGRADE

Amnesia

327

• loss of short-term memory
• impairment of the ability to form new memories through memorization
• usually caused by bilateral lesions to the HIPPOCAMPUS

Anterograde Amnesia

328

• loss of pre-existing memories to conscious recollection
• person may be able to memorize new things but is unable to recall events or identity prior to the on-set
• usually result from lesions to the THALAMUS

Retrograde Amnesia

329

• right hemisphere is dominant in facial expression, intonation, body language, and spatial tasks
• left hemisphere is dominant with respect to language, even in left-handed people
• information is transferred between the two hemi-spheres through the CORPUS CALLOSUM

Hemispheric Specialization

330

• human communication is distinguished by its range and subtlety of expression
• vocalization is the production of sound that has no specific meaning
• language consists of a specific vocabulary and a set of rules of expression (syntax)

Language