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Flashcards in module 4.1 Deck (73)
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1

What are the two parts of the central nervous system?

autonomic nervous system and somatic nervous system
cerebellum and cerebrum
sympathethic division and parasympathetic division
brain and spinal cord

brain and spinal cord

2

Which division of the nervous system is composed of the autonomic and somatic nervous systems?

Central
Parasympathetic
Peripheral
Sympathetic

Peripheral

3

Which division of the nervous system consists of neurons bringing messages from the senses to the central nervous system?

Autonomic
Sympathetic
Somatic
Parasympathetic

Somatic

4

An axon in your hand causes contraction of a muscle fiber in your finger as you write. This neuron belongs to which branch of the nervous system?

Central
Somatic
Sympathetic
Parasympathetic

Somatic

5

Which plane shows brain structures as they would be seen from the front?

Coronal
Sagittal
Horizontal
Transverse

Coronal

6

Which plane shows brain structures as they would be seen from above?

Coronal
Sagittal
Horizontal
Commuter

Horizontal

7

Which plane shows brain structures as they would be seen from the side?

Coronal
Sagittal
Horizontal
Commuter

Sagittal

8

Which of the following means "toward the side, away from the midline"?

Lateral
Medial
Proximal
Ventral

Lateral

9

Which of the following means "toward the back"?

Dorsal
Medial
Proximal
Ventral

Dorsal

10

If one is on the left side of the body and another is one the right, they are said to be ___ to each other.

medial
lateral
ipsilateral
contralateral

contralateral

11

What is the name given to a cluster of neurons inside the CNS?

Lamina
Column
Nucleus
Ganglion

Nucleus

12

What is the name given to a cluster of neurons outside the CNS?

Lamina
Column
Tract
Ganglion

Ganglion

13

The basal ganglia are a related cluster of cell bodies in the central nervous system. Technically, the basal ganglia should have been named the basal:

tract.
lamina.
gyrus.
nuclei.

nuclei.

14

The spinal cord communicates with:

sense organs and muscles below the level of the head.
all sense organs and muscles in the human body.
dorsal root ganglia only.
ventral root ganglia only.

sense organs and muscles below the level of the head.

15

The cell bodies of sensory neurons that are in clusters of neurons outside the spinal cord are called:

sensory nuclei
sensory clusters
ventral root ganglia
dorsal root ganglia

dorsal root ganglia

16

After damage to the ventral roots of the spinal cord, an individual will suffer what kind of loss?

Sensation from the affected body area
Control of the peripheral muscles in the affected body area
Control of organs in the affected body area
Control of the muscles on the opposite side of the body

Control of the peripheral muscles in the affected body area

17

If the ipsilateral dorsal and ventral roots were cut, which of the following would be true?

Sensation would be lost on one side, and motor control on the other.
Sensation would be lost on both sides.
Motor control would be lost on both sides.
Sensation and motor control would be lost on one side.

Sensation and motor control would be lost on one side.

18

Suppose a virus damaged only the dorsal roots of the spinal cord, but not the ventral roots. What would happen to the sensory and motor abilities of the affected area?

Loss of sensation, but preserved motor control
Loss of both sensation and motor control
Loss of motor control, but preserved sensation
Unaffected sensation and motor control

Loss of sensation, but preserved motor control

19

Axons of motor neurons would most likely be found in which of the following?

Gray matter
White matter
Dorsal roots
Tracts

White matter

20

Cell bodies of motor neurons would most likely be found in which of the following?

Gray matter
White matter
Dorsal roots
Tracts

Gray matter

21


In the spinal cord, white matter is comprised mostly of ____, while gray matter is mostly ___.

cell bodies; myelinated axons
dendrites; myelinated axons
myelinated axons; cell bodies
cell bodies; dendrites

myelinated axons; cell bodies

22

If the spinal cord is cut at a given segment, the brain loses sensation at:

that segment only.
that segment and all segments above it.
that segment and all segments below it.
all other segments.

that segment and all segments below it.

23

The autonomic nervous system:

only receives information from the heart, intestines, and other organs.
only sends information to the heart, intestines, and other organs.
receives and sends information to the heart, intestines, and other organs.
conveys messages from the sense organs to the central nervous system.

receives and sends information to the heart, intestines, and other organs.

24

The sweat glands, adrenal glands, and muscles that construct blood vessels have input from only the ___ nervous system.

sympathetic
parasympathetic
central
dorsal root

sympathetic

25

Seeing a snake come out of the drain in the bathtub might increase your heart rate, dilate your pupils, cause you to sweat, and raise the hair on your neck. These responses are due to the activity of the ___ nervous system.

sympathetic
parasympathetic
somatic
motor

sympathetic

26

Which of the following would be the most likely effect of taking a drug that blocks sympathetic nervous system activity?

Increased blood pressure
Sweating
Slowed digestion
Decreased heart rate

Decreased heart rate

27

Sympathetic ganglia:

are located inside the spinal cord.
act more independently than do parasympathetic ganglia.
are closely linked and often act as a single system.
have short postganglionic fibers extending to internal organs.

are closely linked and often act as a single system.

28

What, generally, is the relationship between the activity of the sympathetic and the parasympathetic nervous systems?

The sympathetic controls internal organs while the parasympathetic controls peripheral organs.
The sympathetic usually has specific, localized effects, while the parasympathetic has broad effects.
They usually have opposite effects on the same organ.
The sympathetic is involved in voluntary behavior, while the parasympathetic is involved in involuntary behavior.

They usually have opposite effects on the same organ.

29

Digestive activity is increased by the activation of which branch of the autonomic nervous system?

The parasympathetic
The sympathetic
Both the parasympathetic and sympathetic
Neither the parasympathetic nor the sympathetic

The parasympathetic

30

Sympathetic is to ___ as parasympathetic is to ___.

central nervous system; peripheral nervous system
voluntary behavior; involuntary behavior
arousal; relaxation
neurotransmitters; hormones

arousal; relaxation