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Flashcards in module 6.1 Deck (35)
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1

The blind spot in each eye is blind because:

everyone has nerve damage.
the fluid in the eye becomes crystallized there.
amacrine cells are tangled there.
there are no receptors there.

there are no receptors there.

2

The most common form of color vision deficiency is due to:

poor eyesight.
malformation of area V4 in the brain.
complete absence of one of the types of cones.
long- and medium-wavelength cones making the same photopigment.

long- and medium-wavelength cones making the same photopigment.

3

In the human retina, messages go from receptors at the back of the eye to ____.

retina cells
bipolar cells
ganglion cells
spiny cells

bipolar cells

4

More than a century ago, researchers had evidence that the human retina contained three kinds of color-sensitive receptors. What was the basis of their evidence?

observations of negative after-images
studies of how people adapt to various degrees of light or darkness
chemical measurements on the receptors themselves
experiments on mixing colors of light together

experiments on mixing colors of light together

5

Color constancy is the ability to:

perceive all wavelengths as the same color.
see color, even in very faint light.
differentiate among many colors and hues.
recognize the color of an object despite changes in lighting.

recognize the color of an object despite changes in lighting.

6

According to the trichromatic theory of color vision:

there are only three rods and three cones in each eye.
there are only three colors of light in the worl
rods are important for perception of light colors.
our perception of color depends on the relative activity of three types of cones.

our perception of color depends on the relative activity of three types of cones.

7

Light enters the eye through an opening in the center of the iris called the:

retina
cornea
pupil.
macula

pupil.

8

The optic nerve is composed of axons from which kind of cell?

rods and cones
bipolar cells
horizontal cells
ganglion cells

ganglion cells

9

Ganglion cells near the fovea in humans and other primates are called ____ ganglion cells.

midget
giant
reticulated
cone-shaped

midget

10

Light energy converts 11-cis-retinal to:

opsins.
unstable proteins.
all-trans-retinal.
sodium.

all-trans-retinal.

11

Color and brightness constancy are best explained by the ____ theory of color vision.

trichromatic
opponent-process
retinex
constancy

retinex

12

Light from the right half of the world strikes what part of the retina?

the left half
the right half
the whole retina equally
It depends of the wavelength.

the left half

13

In comparison to cones, rods:

are more sensitive to detail.
are more sensitive to dim light.
reach their peak firing levels slowly.

are more sensitive to dim light.

14

If you want to see something in fine detail, you should focus the light on which part of your retina?

the optic nerve
the fovea
an area containing mostly rods
the cornea

the fovea

15

Various types of ____ cells refine the input to ganglion cells, enabling them to respond specifically to shapes, movement, or other visual features.

receptors
geniculate cells
amacrine cells
optic nerves

amacrine cells

16

In what order does visual information pass through the retina?

receptor cells, ganglion cells, bipolar cells
ganglion cells, bipolar cells, receptor cells
receptor cells, bipolar cells, ganglion cells
bipolar cells, receptor cells, ganglion cells

receptor cells, bipolar cells, ganglion cells

17

Night-active species are more likely than day-active species to have:

better peripheral vision.
larger blind spots.
a greater rod to cone ratio.
a greater cone to rod ratio.

a greater rod to cone ratio.

18

At the level of rods and cones, the ____ theory seems to fit best, while at the level of the bipolar cells, the ____ theory seems to fit best.

opponent process; volley
volley; trichromatic
opponent process; trichromatic
trichromatic; opponent process

trichromatic; opponent process

19

Because blood vessels and ganglion cell axons are almost absent near the ____, it has nearly unimpeded vision.

optic nerve
fovea
area containing mostly rods
cornea

fovea

20

If you wanted to see a faint star at night, you should:

stare straight at it.
look slightly to one side.
look at a mirror's reflection of it.
wait until daytime.

look slightly to one side.

21

Rods are to ____ as cones are to ____.

the periphery; the fovea
red; blue
vertebrates; invertebrates
reading text; reading road signs

the periphery; the fovea

22

According to the law of specific nerve energies, the brain tells the difference between one sensory modality and another by:

which neurotransmitter is release
which neurons are active.
the velocity of the action potentials.
the amplitude of the action potentials

which neurons are active.

23

____ are chemicals that release energy when struck by light.

Phototransmitters
Photosins
Photopigments
Photoions

Photopigments

24

What is perceived when all types of cones are simultaneously and equally active?

red
green
white
yellow

white

25

According to the retinex theory, we perceive color by:

the relative activity of three kinds of cones.
contrasting the activity in one area of the visual field with that of the others.
a red vs. green system and a yellow vs. blue system.
detecting the velocity of action potentials from the eye.

contrasting the activity in one area of the visual field with that of the others.

26

Light is focused as it enters through which of the following structures?

lens only
cornea only
lens and cornea
pupil

lens and cornea

27

Which receptors are responsible for the perception of color?

cones
rods
both rods and cones
horizontal and amacrine cells

cones

28

Why does the fovea provide the clearest, most detailed visual information?

It is closest to the pupil.
It surrounds the optic nerve.
Receptors are tightly packed there.
There are many blood vessels for supplying energy.

Receptors are tightly packed there.

29

After you stare at a bright green object for a minute and look away, you see red. Which theory attempts to explain this finding?

Young-Helmholtz theory
trichromatic theory
opponent-process theory
color-constancy theory

opponent-process theory

30

The bipolar cells send their messages to ____, located closer to the center of the eye.

spiny cells
cornea cells
bipolar cells
ganglion cells

ganglion cells