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Flashcards in module 5.1 Deck (50)
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1

The ability of the brain to change its anatomy over time, within limits is known as

plasticity
regression
connectivity
long term potentiation

plasticity

2

The human central nervous system

begins to form during the fetal stage
is unlike all other vertebrate central nervous systems in its developmental process
begins to form when the embryo is about two weeks old
begins to form when the embryo is about two months old

begins to form when the embryo is about two weeks old

3

Stem cells are important for which of the following developmental processes?

migration
proliferation
myelination
synaptogenisis

proliferation

4

As the neural tube sinks under the surface of the skin, the forward end enlarges and differentiates into the:

spine, midbrain, and forebrain
hindbrain, midbrain, and forebrain
hindbrain, midbrain
midbrain, forebrain

hindbrain, midbrain, and forebrain

5

Children of mothers who smoke cigarettes during pregnancy are at increased risk of

intellectual deficits
Korsakoff's syndrome
Rett syndrome
Parkinson's disease

intellectual deficits

6

Competition of neurons for postsynaptic sites results in survival of only the most sucessful axons. This general principle is called:

natural selection
evolution
apoptosis
neural Darwinism

neural Darwinism

7

Early in development the nervous system begins as a:

A tube surrounding a fluid filled cavity
spherical structure in the center of the embryo
diffuse system of cells scatered throughout the body
single layer of cells covering the heart and other internal organs

A tube surrounding a fluid filled cavity

8

Axons sort themselves over the surface of the target area

by following a gradient of chemicals
through apoptosis
through necrosis
based on their size

by following a gradient of chemicals

9

Apoptosis

is a programmed mechanism of cell death
promotes the survival and growth of the axon
promotes the survival and growth of dendrites
promotes teh activity of neurons

is a programmed mechanism of cell death

10

The final stage of neurodevelopment is called:

synaptogenisis
differentiation
migration
fusion

synaptogenisis

11

Myelination in the human brain:

is complete upon birth
is complete around the second birthday
is complete sometime shortly after adolescence
continues well into the adult years

continues well into the adult years

12

How much alcohol, if any, can a pregnant woman drink without worrying about the negative effects on her child?

The equivalent of two cocktails a day
The equivalent of one beer a day
Anything less than what causes her to act drunk
Unknown, and therefore abstention is recommended

Unknown, and therefore abstention is recommended

13

The mechanism of fetal alcohol syndrome probably relates to

over excited neurons
apoptosis
decreases apoptosis
necrosis

apoptosis

14

What happened when Weiss grafted an extra leg onto a salamander adjacent to one of the hindlegs

the new leg gradually took over for the old
the new leg withered and died
nerves from the old leg attached to the new in a random fashion
Branches of axons from the old leg attached to corresponding muscles in the new

Branches of axons from the old leg attached to corresponding muscles in the new

15

Why is it that all neurons in a health adult brain have made appropriate connections?

Chemical messages from our muscles tell our brain how many neurons to form and that number perfectly matches the connections required
if an axon does not make the appropriate connections by a certain age, it dies
we are born with all connections formed
connections form rapidly, but we learn to use whatever connections have formed

if an axon does not make the appropriate connections by a certain age, it dies

16

Alcohol suppresses the release of _________, the brain's main excitatory transmitter.

5-HT
DA
GABA
glutamate

glutamate

17

Brain studies of blind people suggest that they have greater attention to touch and auditory stimulation because

cortical areas for touch and audition are thicker
their visual cortex is used for touch and verbal tasks
they have greater neural branching
they have greater neurotrophin release

their visual cortex is used for touch and verbal tasks

18

The most likely explanation for the excess proliferation of neurons in early development is that it

compensates for the connection errors
uses up excess stored fuel
increases learning capactiy when it is most needed
prevents apoptosis

compensates for the connection errors

19

Which of the following aspects of brain and neural functioning can be most clearly altered by experience?

velocity of action potentials
structure of dendrites and axons
chemical constituents of the ventricles
number of laminae in the cerebral cortex

structure of dendrites and axons

20

The fluid-filled cavity of the developing neural tube becomes the

forebrain
midbrain
spinal cord
ventricular system

ventricular system

21

Roger Sperry cut a newt's optic nerve and rotated the eye. Axons form what used to be the dorsal part of the retina (now located on the ventral side) grew back to the target areas:

that ordinarily get input from the dorsal retina
that ordinarily get input from the ventral retina
that ordinarily get input from the center of the retina
equally and diffusely

that ordinarily get input from the dorsal retina

22

Children of mothers who use cocaine during pregnancy

have a slightly higher birth weight
are likely to develop Turner's syndrome
have a slightly lower IQ
are born with severe abnormalities resembling cerebral palsy

have a slightly lower IQ

23

Developing neurons need _______ for survival

neurotrophins only
neurotropins and synaptic input
synaptic input only
apoptosis

neurotropins and synaptic input

24

Children of mothers who drink heavily during pregnancy are born with

fetal alcohol syndrome
Turner's syndrome
Klinefelter's syndrome
PKU

fetal alcohol syndrome

25

Which of the following would most likely interfere with migration of neurons during development?

altering chemical paths
damaging dendrites
loss of myelin
increased differentiation

altering chemical paths

26

What visual capabilities did Sperry's newt have after Sperry cut the optic nerve and rotated the eye?

it regained normal vision
it saw the world upside down and backwards
it required experience to relearn how to see
it remained blind

it saw the world upside down and backwards

27

What is signaled by nerve growth factor (NGF)?

That a target cell has "accepted" an axon
which target cell a growing axon should connect with
that axons should elongate as the body grows bigger
the need for new neurons to form in the brain areas that are lacking in neurons

That a target cell has "accepted" an axon

28


Whether or not a transplanted immature neuron adopts the properties of neurons in the new location or retains at least some properties of neurons from where it was taken depends largely on how much the transplanted neuron has:

myelinated
proliferated
migrated
differentiated

differentiated

29

Keeping animals in a varied environment with stimulation increases the

branching of dendrites
speed of action potentials
density of Nodes of Ranvier along the axon
thickness of axons

branching of dendrites

30

Focal hand Dystonia, sometimes called "musician's cramp" is caused by

extreme overlap of cortical representation of the fingers
deterioation of muscles in the hand
demyelination of neurons in the fingers
buildup of excess GABA in the temporal cortex

extreme overlap of cortical representation of the fingers