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Flashcards in module 6.2 Deck (45)
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1

What is the shape of the receptive field to which a simple cell in the primary visual cortex responds?

circle of a particular radius
circle with a hole in the middle
bar in a particular orientation
bar of a particular length

bar in a particular orientation

2

Astigmatism refers to the:

sensitive period for development of vision.
ability to see horizontal and vertical lines.
asymmetric curvature of eyes.
inability to detect motion.

asymmetric curvature of eyes.

3

Most neurons in the inferior temporal cortex that respond to a particular shape will be LEAST likely to respond to a:

contrast reversal.
figure-ground reversal.
mirror image.
photograph of the same shape.

figure-ground reversal.

4

Once within the cerebral cortex, the parvocellular pathway continues as a pathway sensitive to:

details of shape.
depth.
visual memories.
movement.

details of shape.

5

The receptive field of a receptor is the:

point at which the optic nerve exits the retin a.
axon hillock.
point in space from which light strikes the receptor.
point where light shines on, and excites, the visual cortex.

point in space from which light strikes the receptor.

6

What is strabismus?

failure of the two eyes to focus on the same thing at the same time
a blurring of vision caused by asymmetrical curvature of the eye
stereoscopic depth perception
the ability to perceive a flashing light as if it were a moving object

failure of the two eyes to focus on the same thing at the same time

7


Neurons whose responses indicate a particular feature of a stimulus, such as the presence of a bar, line, or edge are referred to as:

hypercomplex cells.
magnocellular cells.
feature detectors.
shape detectors.

feature detectors.

8

Cutting the left optic nerve in front of the optic chiasm would result in blindness in ____.

the right eye
the left eye
peripheral vision of both eyes
the left visual field

the left eye

9

According to research on visual development in animals, probably the best way to treat amblyopia is to cover:

both eyes for a few months early in life.
the strong eye for a period of time early in life.
the lazy eye for a period of time early in life.
the strong eye for a period of time during adulthood.

the strong eye for a period of time early in life.

10

Infants with cataracts need to have surgical repair:

as early as possible.
before they begin school.
if it does not fix itself
when they are old enough to recover from surgery.

as early as possible.

11

Cases in which individuals with cataracts have sight restored to them after many years suggest that:

most aspects of visual perception are inborn.
early experiences can have relatively permanent effects on the brain.
visual perception can be learned at any age.
experiences later in life can greatly remodel connection in the visual cortex.

early experiences can have relatively permanent effects on the brain.

12

Magnocellular cells are to ____ as parvocellular cells are to ____.

wake-sleep cycles; movement
movement; color
detail; color
color; wake-sleep cycles

movement; color

13

The enhancement of contrast at the edge of an object is the result of:

lateral inhibition in the retin a.
the diffraction of light from the edge's surface.
fatigue of the rods and cones.
the color of the object.

lateral inhibition in the retin a.

14

Kittens that are restricted to having only having one eye open at a time are similar to humans with strabismus in that:

stereoscopic depth perception fails to develop.
they are completely blind.
they can see twice as much.
they are cross-eyed.

stereoscopic depth perception fails to develop.

15

What type of cell responds to a pattern of light in a particular orientation anywhere within its large receptive field, regardless of the exact location of the stimulus?

simple
complex
bipolar
ganglion

complex

16

Cortical area ____ appears to be where conscious visual perception occurs.

V4
V3
V2
V1

V1

17

In the vertebrate retina, which cells are responsible for lateral inhibition?

horizontal cells
ganglion cells
bipolar cells
glial cells

horizontal cells

18

Where does the optic nerve send most of its information?

directly to the cerebral cortex
to the lateral geniculate
to the superior colliculus
directly to the occipital lobe

to the lateral geniculate

19

The lateral geniculate nucleus is part of the:

cerebral cortex
superior colliculus
inferior colliculus
thalamus

thalamus

20

Parvocellular neurons most likely receive input from:

magnocellular neurons.
rods.
bipolar cells that receive input from cones.
the periphery of the retin a.

bipolar cells that receive input from cones.

21

Children with strabismus fail to develop:

perception of movement.
the ability to recognize faces.
stereoscopic depth perception.
any kind of depth perception.

stereoscopic depth perception.

22

In humans, the optic nerves from the two eyes follow what pathway?

They go directly to the ipsilateral hemisphere, without contacting each other.
They go directly to the contralateral hemisphere, without contacting each other.
Half of the axons from each eye cross to the other side at the optic chiasm.
They combine to send identical information to each hemisphere.

Half of the axons from each eye cross to the other side at the optic chiasm.

23

While light is striking a visual receptor, light begins also to strike the receptor next to it. What effect will this additional light have on the response of the first cell?

excitation
inhibition
no effect
first inhibition, then excitation

inhibition

24

In the case of blindsight, losing conscious visual perception would most likely be associated with:

massive damage to the optic nerves.
increased olfactory perception.
enhanced visual dreams.
loss of visual imagination.

loss of visual imagination

25

A(n) ____ cell has a strong inhibitory area at one end of its bar-shaped receptive field.

simple
complex
hypercomplex
polycomplex

hypercomplex

26

Axons from the lateral geniculate extend to which area of the cerebral cortex?

precentral gyrus
postcentral gyrus
prefrontal cortex
occipital lobe

occipital lobe

27

Small receptive fields are to ____ cells as large receptive fields are to ____ cells.

parvocellular; magnocellular
magnocellular; parvocellular
magnocellular; koniocellular
koniocellular; parvocellular

parvocellular; magnocellular

28

A strong astigmatism during the first year or so of life can produce effects in the human brain similar to those found in what kinds of experiments on cats

covering one eye during the sensitive period
covering both eyes during the sensitive period
destroying individual cells by implanting electrodes
restricting visual stimulation to one particular orientation

restricting visual stimulation to one particular orientation

29

The primary visual cortex is also known as the:

lateral geniculate nucleus.
striate cortex.
area V2.
parvocellular are a.

striate cortex.

30

The primary visual cortex sends its information:

to the lateral geniculate nucleus.
to area V1.
to area V2.
back to the retin a.

to area V2.