Module 9: Reproductive System Flashcards Preview

Physiology Module > Module 9: Reproductive System > Flashcards

Flashcards in Module 9: Reproductive System Deck (224)
Loading flashcards...
61

Genital Folds

Male: Penis (ventral shaft)
Female: Labia minora

62

Genital Swelling

Male: Scrotum, prepuce
Female: Labia majora

63

Urogenital Sinus

Male: Male urethra, cowper's gland, prostate gland
Female: Female urethra, lower vagina, Bartholin's gland, Skene's gland

64

Defect in the fusion of the genital fold will result to an orifice in the ventral portion of the penis which is called __

Hypospadia

65

If the baby is genetically female but exposed to high levels of testosterone in utero, what will be the result?

Labia minora will fuse (Labial fusion)

66

• identification of self as either male or female
• applicable only to humans
• formed in early childhood
• independent of hormonal regulation and even of the phenotype of the individual
• depend on rearing cues and cultures
• considered as socially, culturally, historically and psychologically determined

Psychological Sex or Gender Identity

67

• exact biologic basis has not been discovered
• region Xq28 of the X chromosome has been controversially dubbed as the “gay gene”

Homosexuality

68

(Homosexuality)
• brain studies reveal:

o 1.7x larger superchiasmatic nucleus in homosexual males
o anterior commissure is 18% larger in heterosexual females and 34% larger in heterosexual males

69

• established defect in gametogenesis
• chromosomes fail to separate therefore both go to one of the daughter cells during meiosis, the other has none

Nondisjunction

70

• complete absence of one sex chromosome (Barr body)
*leads to monosomy X (XO genotype)
• short stature (

Turner Syndrome (Monosomy X)

71

• meiotic nondisjunction leads to a 47, XXY genotype
• testicular atrophy
• eunuchoid body shape
• tall, long extremities
• gynecomastia
• female hair distribution

Klinefelter Syndrome

72

• only one X chromosome is active (two Barr bodies are present)
• usually no distinguishable difference between triple X and normal females (some studies show increased risk for menstrual irregularities and learning disorders)

Superfemale (Triple X Syndrome)

73

• disorder of sexual differentiation
• born with both ovarian and testicular tissues

Hermaphroditism

74

Hermaphroditism: two types

• true hermaphrodites - functional gonads
• pseudohermaphrodites - phenotype and genotype do NOT match (nonfunctional gonads)

75

• genetic males whose target cells lack receptors for testosterone are feminized
• male pseudohermaphrodites (male genotype, female phenotype)

Testicular Feminization (Androgen Insensitivity)

76

• adrenal androgen overproduction in the fetus
• female pseudohermaphrodites
*female genotype, male phenotype
*virilization of an XX fetus
*ambiguous genitalia
• lack of testosterone (cortisol pathway is not favored but only the androgen pathway is favored)

Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia (Adrenogenital Syndrome)

77

• only hormone that can produce a negative feedback in the hypothalamus-pituitary
• because of lack of this hormone, there is a continuous production of ACTH causing virilization

Cortisol

78

The two most basic components of the reproductive system are __.

the gonads and the reproductive tract

79

The gonads (testes and ovaries) perform an endocrine function, which is regulated within a __. The gonads are distinct from other endocrine glands in that they also perform an exocrine function (gametogenesis).

hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis

80

Most common problem in lack of estrogen is __.

nondevelopment of the breast bud

81

The __ is involved in several aspects of gamete development, function, and transport and, in women, allows fertilization, implantation, and gestation.

reproductive tract

82

Male Reproductive System: 3 FUNCTIONS

• Spermatogenesis
• Performance of the male sexual act
• Regulation of male reproductive function through hormones (Hormones also affect cellular metabolism and growth)

83

(Male Reproductive Tract)

- Contains Seminiferous tubules

TESTIS

84

(Male Reproductive Tract)

- Coiled tube of 6 meters long
- Enables motility of sperm (for 18-24 hours

EPIDIDYMIS

85

(Male Reproductive Tract)

- Ampulla of the vas deferens
- Stores sperm

VAS DEFERENS

86

(Male Reproductive Tract)

- Walnut-shaped

PROSTATE GLAND

87

(Male Reproductive Tract)

- Forms the EJACULATORY DUCT with the ampulla of the vas deferens

SEMINAL VESICLES

88

(Male Reproductive Tract)

- External connection of testis to the external environment
- Supplied with mucus derived urethral glands and bulbourethral glands

URETHRA

89

• Formation of sperm
• Occurs in the seminiferous tubules
• Starts at puberty at around 13 years and occurs throughout life

SPERMATOGENESIS

90

Tract of Sperm

Testis (seminiferous tubules) >> epididymis >> vas deferens >> ejaculatory duct >> urethra >> out to the penis

SEVENUP
Seminiferous tubules
Epididymis
Ejaculatory Ducts
(Nothing)
Urethra
Penis