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1

what were the parts of humanism

spic
secularism
power
individualism
classics

2

who was affected by the renaissance culture

5% of the population
artists
scholars
nobles

3

serfdom

equivalent to feudalism

4

marriage

-families needed to give permission to men to marry at 30
- married for economic benefit
-women married in her teens

5

lorenzo da medici

florence
-lorenzo the magnificent
-wealthy bankers
-commisioned michelangelo

6

Johannes guttenburg

-came up of the steel letters
-part of the invention of the printing press
-used relief carving (de Vinci, Michelangelo, donatello)

7

china

-most inventions made the inventions
-they didn’t utilize the technology that they created
-inventions defused to Europe
-they were poor

8

printing press

-printed 12 copies of the guttenburg bible
-1454-1456

9

literacy

-informed citizens
-secret politics of the mind (make opinions before talking to people)

10

jan van eyck

-used oil paints
-had multiple thin layers to make textures

11

albrekt durer

-sculpture
-german
-relieve carving

12

Michelangelo

-commissioned by pope julius the second
-painted the sistine chapel
-david
-contrapasta stance
-15 to 16 centuries

13

david

-first was carved in bronze by Donatello (nutella- brown=brown)
-then carved by Michelangelo

14

fillipo brunelleschi

-architect
-created a dome in florence
-known for use of linear perspective

15

main concepts of renaissance architecture

-balance
-symmetry
-domes
-columns
-proportions

16

main concepts of renaissance art (cpr, dbc)

-classical themes (biblical, roman, greek)
-color
-realism
-depth
-balance
-perspective

17

john wycliff

-opposed papal authority
-john hus was one of his first followers

18

hansiatic league (HANSA)

-have a monopoly over the baltic maritime trade
-trade agreement with northern european countries (germany to estonia)

19

northern vs italian

-italians (art focused on the human form) (more secular) (individualism- individual should advance themselves in society as much as they could)
-northern (art was more religious) (each individual should better themselves to help the society)
-both had emphasis on the classics

20

jacob burkhardt

-coined the term renaissance
-historian
-“rebirth”

21

ferdinand & isabela (catholic monarchs)

-new monarchs of spain
-married to united argon & castle (1469)
-spain was till not unified
-religion finally unified spain (christianity)
-converted jews & muslims to catholics
-spain’s economy went down the drain

22

peace of lodi (april 9, 1454)

peace of lodi (april 9, 1454)
-peace agreement between naples, florence, milan
-rise of diplomacy (forced the italian city states to communication) (talk without fighting)
-insured the peace among city states
-set the stage for no wars during the high renaissance

23

5 italian powers

-venice
-florence
-milan
-naples
-papal states

24

florence

-inland
-enormous wealth
-merchants & banker
-profits from banking were put straight to the urban industry (growing cities & commissioning art)
-leader in renaissance art (because of the wealth)
-birth place of the renaissance

25

byzantine empire

-after the fall of the roman empire (1,000 years)
-constanpanople
-eastern part of the romain empire stayed strong (byzantine)
-ottoman turks in 1453
-byzantine empire was the most powerful economic, cultural, & military force in most of its existence

26

Francesco Petrarch

-father of humanism
-added latin words
-wrote poetry to laura

27

holy romain empire

-worked off of greek ideas & spread throughout europe

28

clergy

-church officials
-people who work for the church
-60% of clergy died because they helped people with the plague

29

pope julius the second

-the warrior pope
-involved with war & politics

30

new monarchs

-wanted to centralize power
-england
-henry the seventh
-france
-charles the seventh

31

chiaroscuro

-created during the renaissance
-form of shading

32

hundred years war (1337-1453)

-because of land rights, economic conflicts & disputes over the french throne
-both government manipulated hate for the other side
-battle of crecy 1346
-england raised whool prices 5 million dollars in debt

33

babylonean captivity

-70 years that biblical hebrews were held in captive in babylon
-french throne took hebrews to vignon
-led to the great schism
-france wanted to control clergy members

34

renaissance started in florence

-italian was rich
-textiles & banking

35

commune

-men seeking complete economic independence from local nobles (breaking free of feudalism
-italian cities

36

popolo (peasants)

-wanted power over communes
-used violence
-got rule by the way that they didn’t want to have people rule (violence)

37

signori

-politival organisation
-one ruler

38

oligarchy

-group of rulers

39

plutocracy (better term for oligarchy)

-top 1% wealthy people
-ex) florence medici family

40

the prince

-modled after caesar borgia (ruled papal states)

41

italian cities invaded

-they always turned on each other so no big alliances
-big countries knew the states were very vulnerable
-idependantly wealthy

42

savon arola

-gave sermons appeal to the ordinary
-praised the power of the church

43

leon battista alberti

-men can do all things if they would
-we could be more god like or like animals
-believed women should stay at home

44

pico (like leon)

-wrote on the dignity of man
-thought that men should be prideful

45

lorenza valla

-donation to constatine was false (the church thought was real & gave power to the clergy)
-ended up weakening papal control

46

who became the leader in the renaissance after italy fell

rome

47

massaccio

-father of modern painfting
-use of light & dark

48

artists status rose greatly

-artists knew the importance of their work
-boasted about it

49

leonardo de vinci

-listed as a master of art
-only 20 at the time
-one of the smartest of all time
-engineer
-maybe homosexual
-milan
-military engineer for caesar borgia
-died in the arms of the king

50

laura ceretta

-believed that women don’t live up to their own potential

51

slave trade created opions about black inferiority

-it was easy to trade black people
-africa was very poor at the time

52

quirreles de femmes

-fight about women
-women’s role is bad in society

53

popular view about female rulers

-thought that they were inferior to men

54

clock

-stimulated quantification of time
-change the mindset to do more in the day
-didnt invent the clock

55

status of women

-domestic chores
-textile
-less power than women than in the feudle stage
-cared for people
-entertain
-planned activities for the house hold

56

overall women’s status

-decreased in nobles
-viewed as objects of art
-pawn for money & economic advantage

57

office of the night

-group of people who wanted to ban the people from being homosexual

58

blackness

-symbolized hostile forces of the underground world

59

erasmus (christmas)

-wrote praise of folly (all the bad things of a church shown through a girl)
-everyone should be able & willing to read the bible
-themes- education is good
-core of education is around the bible
-church was great
-didnt believe in the clergy

60

luis the 11

-spider king
-money is the answer
-timely death of other rulers gave him power
-severe taxation

61

star chamber

-group of people who replaced parlament
-middle class
-reduce power of nobles
-wrongly accuse nobles
-torture them

62

reconquista

-northern kingdoms to control peninsulas

63

new christian

-old jews & muslims (by blood)
-forced to

64

1450-1650

-reconassance, discovery, &expansion

65

jerusalem

-christianity
-judiasm
-islam
crusades
-catholic church trying to regain jerusalem
-trying to get religious expansion
-irradentism (reclaiming their homeland)

66

-11-13 centuries

-ottoman turks 1450
-1453 ottoman turks catured constanople

67

portugal

-overlooked but still a huge part of european exploration
-wanted a route to trade spices with india
-prester john (legandary christian king)
thought to rule over europe
legend
-king
henry the navigator
-navigation school
-gold from sudan & gana
-controlled gold imports
-main port was lisbon (capital)
-seized muslim ports with cannons

68

spain-

-looked for riches & christianity

69

christopher columbus

-complete ass
-looking for india
-brought slaves

70

aztec empire

-cortez conquered

71

incas empire

-pizzaro conquered

72

magellan

-sailed around the world
-died before he finished
-route to find spices
-found that the earth is round

73

treaty of tordecillas

-devided new world between protugal & spain

74

conquisadors

-hired by spain
-conquered the new world

75

encomianda (arrangement)

-land & native americans to worlk for them
-they needed to preach christianity

76

1492

-jews from spain went to netherlands
-netherlands then had a huge economic boost

77

war of the roses

-lancaster vs. yorks
-lancasters/ tutors won
-henry tutor renamed himself henry the seventh when he took the throne

78

role of religion in discovery

-religion was the driving force
-they realized that they could make money
-(pizzaro & cortez)
-pizzaro tried to give them the bible