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Flashcards in unit one- renaissance Deck (26)
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1

renaissance

1400-1600
- intellectual basis was humanism
- "rebirth"
-derived from the rediscovery of classical Greek philosophy
-began in Florence

2

The High Renaissance

1450-1527

3

Isabella d'Este

-"first lady" of the Renaissance.
-major cultural/political figure from Mantua
-patron of the arts and fashion
-served briefly as leader in Mantua in the absence of her husband, went on diplomatic trips, etc.

4

Cosimo de Medici and his family

-The first of the Medici political dynasty in Florence
-power derived from immense wealth as a banker
-controlled gov by gaining support bc of banking
-remained citizens rather than monarchs.

5

Humanism

-revival of antiquity
-study of the classics
-system of thought attaching prime importance to human rather than divine or supernatural matters.
-Humanist stress the potential value and goodness of human beings, emphasize common human needs, and seek solely rational ways of solving human problems.
-SPIC- secularism, power, individualism, classics.

6

Who was affected by the Renaissance culture?

-95% of Europeans were UNAFFECTED by the renaissance.
-Only the upper class, scholars, and artists were truly influenced by the changes.

7

Status of women

upper class- status declines
middle- no effect
low- no effect

8

Johannes Gutenberg

-Gutenberg aided in the creation of the printing press.
-used steel plates to carve the letters
-1454-1456 (creation of printing press)
-brought about literacy, informed citizens, and the "secret politics" of the mind.

9

Renaissance Architecture key aspects

-balance
-domes
-columns
-symmetry
-proportion

modeled after classical greek and roman buildings.

10

Renaissance Art Key Aspects

-vivid, bright color
-perspective
-realism
-depth
-balance
-classical themes

11

John Wyclif

-one of the earliest opponents to papal authority- rebellious movement against papal authority
-anticlerical and biblical-centered reforms

12

Hanseatic League (HANSA)

-monopoly over the baltic maritime trade
-trade agreement with northern european countries (germany to estonia)
-a commercial and defensive confederation of merchant guilds and their market towns.
-during the Late Middle Ages and early modern period (c. 13th to 17th centuries).
-created to protect economic interests and diplomatic privileges

13

Northern Renaissance

-came much later
-art was more religious
-advanced broad social reforms (not only individualism)
(overall change in society through change in the individual)
-emphasis on the classics
-more focused on color in art than form
-believed each individual should better themselves to help the society

14

Italian Renaissance

-came first
-humanism and glorification of human life (focused on the human form)
-classical texts, individualism, more focused on form and realism in art

15

Ferdinand and Isabella of Spain

-monarchs who married (1469)
-created the union of Castile and Aragon
-formed the Kingdom of Spain
-"Catholic Monarchs"
-very powerful duo

16

Florence

-inland city
-enormous wealth
-merchants and bankers
-profits put into urban industries
-major leader in renaissance art

17

Byzantine Empire

-eastern part of the Roman Empire
-during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages.
-capital city was Constantinople.
-survived the fragmentation and fall of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century
-continued to exist for a thousand years
-fell to the Ottoman Turks in 1453
-was the most powerful economic, cultural, and military force in Europe for most of its existence

18

Francesco Petrarch

-1304-1394
-"Father of Humanism"
-writing used to shape modern latin,
-Laura (idealized lover)

19

Slavery

-slavery rose after black death due to labor shortages
-price increased
-strong lords could satisfy needs of their estates
-profitable exchange for merchants
-began to import black/sub-saharan slaves
-symbol of wealth and entertainment
-associated black slaves with the devil (darkness) since god was light

20

serfdom/ serfs

-status of peasants under feudalism
-surfs who occupied a plot of land were required to work for the lord and in return were entitled to protection and justice within the manor
-lowest class of feudal society

21

feudalism

-dominant social system
-nobility held lands from the Crown in exchange for military service
-serfs were obliged to live on their lord's land and give him homage, labor, and a share of the produce, in exchange for military protection.

22

John Hus

-religious reform
-thought people should be able to read the Bible in their own language
-opposed the tyranny of the Roman church
-Hus was burned at the stake for heresy in 1415

23

individualism

-belief that the individual should advance themselves in society as much as they could

24

peace of lodi (april 9, 1454)

peace of lodi (april 9, 1454)
-peace agreement between naples, florence, milan
-rise of diplomacy (forced the italian city states to communication) (talk without fighting)
-insured the peace among city states
-set the stage for no wars during the high renaissance

25

5 italian powers

-venice
-florence
-milan
-naples
-papal states

26

hundred years war (1337-1453)

-because of land rights, economic conflicts & disputes over the french throne
-both government manipulated hate for the other side
-battle of crecy 1346
-england raised whool prices 5 million dollars in debt