Molecular Bio Flashcards Preview

COB Cumulative Final > Molecular Bio > Flashcards

Flashcards in Molecular Bio Deck (114)
Loading flashcards...
91

True or false? mitochondria are more dynamic in high energy cells

false, less dynamic. become more fixed in high energy cells where they are packed tightly between myofibrils

92

Do mitochondria retain their own DNA?

yes

93

Mitochondria transfer RNAs are highly variable. changes in mt tRNAs have been linked to over 200 disease states. true or false?

true

94

Accumulation of ___ generated by the respiratory chain can cause mito DNA damage

ROS

note: ROS increase with age, and the brain is particularly susceptible

95

list the layers of the epidermis

granular, prickle, basal, basal lamina

96

Olfactory receptors are what type of receptor?

G protein coupled receptor

97

Describe the flow of action potential from olfactory receptor

relayed via axon to brain to glomeruli

98

Where are glomeruli found?

olfactory bulbs

99

Define totipotency

ability of a cell to give rise to all cells of an organism, including embryonic and extra embryonic tissues ex: zygote

100

Define pluriptoency

ability of a cell to give rise to all cells of the embryo and subsequently adult tissues ex: embryonic stem cells

101

define multipotency

ability of a cell to give rise to different cell types of a given lineage ex: adult stem cells

102

true or false? founder stem-cell populations stay small; transit amplifying divisions let them generate and renew a big adult structure

true

103

Explain the immortal strand hypothesis

to combat passing on mutation, stem cells divide asymmetrically, passing down a template parental strand

104

How are ES cells derived?

what for zygote to become blastocyst and then take inner cell mass and culture on plate

105

True or false? Adult stem cells are tissue specific

true

106

give the function of the following types of RNAs:
tRNA; snRNA; snoRNA; miRNA; siRNA

tRNA: adaptor between mRNA and AAs

snRNA: splicing of pre-mRNA

snoRNA: chemically modify rRNAs

miRNA: regulate gene expression - block translation of specific mRNAs

siRNA: turn off gene expression

107

Explain eukaryotic transcription initiation

TFIID binds to TATA box; recruitment of other TFs; formation of transcription initiation complex; Phosphorylation of CTD by TFIIH = elongation

108

The genetic code is degenerate. True or false?

True

109

What is the anticodon loop on a tRNA molecule?

a set of 3 consecutive nucleotides that pair with a complementary codon in an mRNA molecule

110

What is the 3'CCA terminal region of a tRNA molecule?

the region which binds the AA that matches the corresponding codon

111

Some tRNAs require accurate base-pairing only at the first two positions of the codon and can tolerate a mismatch at the third (wobble) position. This wobble base pairing explains why.....

so many of the alternative codons for an AA differ only in their third nucleotide

112

UAA, UAG and UGA are what type of codons

stop codons

113

Protein transfer/transport to various compartments is guided by ___ signals. Signal ___ remove signal after protein reaches final destination

sorting; peptidases

114

Nuclear transport is ___, ___, and ____

bidirectional, selective, and gated