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Flashcards in Molecular Biology Deck (40)
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What is DNA composed of



What are the components of deixyribonucleotides

A purine or pyrimidine base
A deoxyribose sugar
A phosphate group


What is a nucleotide

A molecule with all the components of deoxyribonucleotides


What is a nucleoside

A molecule with only the first two components of a nucleotide but no phosphate group


How many rings does a purine base have

it has 2 rings


how many rings does a pyrimidine base have

it only has 1 ring


What is DNAs primary structure

Its the sequence of the base pairs


What is DNAs secondary structure

Formed by the complimentary base pairing of two strands of DNA


How does base pairing of the secondary DNA structure occur

Thro hydrogen bonding between a purine and pyrimidine base that matches up to provide optimal hydrogen bonding contact


What does the back bone of DNA hold

It has the sugars and phosphates


What are the steps for the central dogma of molecular biology

Replication, transcription, translation


What happens during replication for the central dogma

DNA synthesis or copying DNA


What happens during transcription of the cental dogma

DNA provides template for production of messenger RNA (mRNA)


What is mRNA

in essence it "reads" the info in DNA and brings it to the site of protein synthesis, the ribosome


What happens during Translation of the central dogma

Process by which the info carried in mRNA is used to make actual proteins


What does mRNA provide for protein building

a template for the amino acids carried by transfer RNA (tRNA) to be build into proteins of the correct sequence


Reverse transcription

Some virus which are able to take RNA and reverse the process to create DNA


Semi-conservative replication

When creating new strains of DNA each new strand with always have at least one older stand as well as a newer one


What does RNA contain as basic components

Same as DNA which is has a Base, sugar and phosphate


What are the two structural differences between RNA and DNA

The sugar in RNA contains a hydroxyl group at the 2' position
RNA does not contain the pyrimidine base thymine; it has the pyrimidine base of uracil


What differs in RNA compared to DNA with its secondary structure

Can use either intermolecular or intramolecular base pairing while DNA only has intermolecular base pairing


What can RNA do that DNA can not in terms of twisting and folding

DNA can only form double helix while RNA can Twist and fold in 3D forms to create tertiary structures


What are the different types of RNA and what are these based off of

based of their functions
Messenger RNA (mRNA); carries message from DNA
Transfer RNA (tRNA); brings amino acids to ribosome
Ribosomal RNA (rRNA); part of the ribosome


what is a Transcription event

production of RNA based off a DNA template


What is RNA-polmerase

An enzyme which binds to the DNA and finds a promoter


What is a Promoter that is found by RNA-polimerase

tells the enzyme that this is the start of a gene and where transcription should begin


What is a stop site found by RNA-polimerase

Signals the end of a gene and where transcription should end


What are introns

Part of RNA which are not expressed in the protein and need to be removed thro RNA splicing before translation


What are Exons

Part of the RNA which holds the coding regions for proteins


Where does a codon on mRNA pair

it pairs with the anitcodon on tRNA and determines which amino acid is attached to the peptide chain