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Flashcards in Pharmacology 1 Deck (41)
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1

What is Pharmacology

Defined as the study of substances that interact with living systems thro chemical processes, especially by binding to regulatory molecules and activating or inhibiting normal body processes

2

What is a drug

Defined as a natural product, chemical substance, or pharmaceutical preparation intended for administration to a human or animal to diagnose or treat a disease

3

How does the body handle drugs

ADME
Absorption, distribution, metabolism, elimination

4

What are pharmacokinetics

how the body handles the drug

5

Bioavailability

The fraction of the administered drug that reaches the systemic circulation

6

Onset of Action

Time after administration at which you see the drug effect

7

duration of action

time during which plasma concentration stays above the MEC for desired effect

8

half-life

time required for plasma concentration of a dug to decrease by 1/2 after absorption and distribution are complete

9

Therapeutic Window

Where you want to effects to occur. it above the MEC for desired response and below the MEC for adverse response

10

Whats the MEC

Min effective concentration

11

What happens during distribution

After reaching the blood stream, drugs get distributed into various tissues in the body in two phases

12

Initial phase of distribution

Distribution to interstitial and intracellular space, and to highly perfused organs such as liver, kidney and brain

13

Second Phase of distribution

Distribution to muscles, most viscera, skin, bone and fat that is slower

14

What does drug metabolism (biotransformation) do

Enhances elimination of drugs by increasing their excretion, terminate the action of drugs and endogenous substance and activates certain prodrugs to their active form

15

Where are the sites of metabolsim

Mainly in the liver, kidneys play an important role in the metabolism of some drugs, a few are done in blood and intestinal wall

16

What are the two forms a drug can be in when excreted

it could be unchanged or it can be converted to metabolites

17

what kind of compounds do excretory organs expel best (lungs exuded)

Polar compounds are excreted much easier than substances with high lipid solubility

18

What must happen to lipid soluble drugs to be eliminated

they must be metabolized to more polar compounds before they can be excreted

19

What kind of drugs are excreted in feces

Unabsorbed oral drugs or drug metabolites excreted either in the bile or into the intestinal tract and are not reabsorbed

20

Why is excretion of the lungs important

Mainly for the elimination of anesthetic gases and volatile compounds such as ethanol

21

whats the most important organ for excreting drugs and their metabolites

the kidneys

22

What is Pharmacodynamics

Study of what drugs do to the body. Drug effects, mec of action, measurement of drug action, modulation of drug action

23

what are some common drug targets

receptors, enzymes, carrier molecules, voltage-gated ion channels

24

What are receptors as drug targets

A structure on the surface of a cell (or inside a cell) that selectively received and binds a specific substance causing a change in cell function

25

what are enzymes as drug tragets

usually macro-molecules proteins that act as a catalyst

26

Carrier molecules a drug targets

transport a chemical across a membrane with in the body to allow it work

27

Ion channels as drug targets

allow passage of ions across bio membrane and allow them to open and or close

28

what is signal transuction

An extracellular signaling molecule (ligand or agonist) activates a receptor on the cell membrane and this receptor in turn activates intracellular 'second messagers" that cause a response

29

what is the dose in pharmacodynamics

the amount of drug administered

30

what is response in pharmacodynamics

the effect