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Flashcards in Pharmacology 2 Deck (20)
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1

What is the most chronic illness in kids

Asthma

2

How many people does asthma effect

20 mil

3

how many people die each year from asthma

5000
estimated 80-90% are preventable

4

What are the symptoms of asthma

Episodic symptoms include
Wheezing, breathlessness, chest tightness, cough
usually worse at night or early morning

5

What result does asthma give

chronic inflammation of the airway sand prevents air from diffusing into blood

6

What class of drugs is used to treat asthma syptoms

beta2-adrenergic receptor agonists

7

What is a common drug used to treat asthma and its MOA

Albuterol, a short acting agonist at b2-adrenergic receptors
causes bronchodilation via relaxation of smooth muscle by stimulating cAMP production

8

What does cAMP do in smooth muscle

causes it relax, which in the lungs leads to bronodilation

9

What are some of the adverse effects of albuterol

skeletal muscle tremor, tachycardia, headache, Nau/vom, bronchospasm, tolerance

10

What typically causes there to be adverse effects when using albuterol

its mediated by the drug acting at B1 receptors instead of at B2

11

What are the therapeutic indication for albuterol

acute bronchospasm
used for both asthma and COPD
1st line therapy for mild symptoms

12

what are the pharmacokinetics for albuterol

relative short acting
onset of action = 1-3 minutes
duration of action = 3-4 hours

13

What are some other short-acting B2 agonists

Levalbuterol (Xopenex)
Pirbuterol (maxair)
Terbutaline (brethaire)

14

How many people around the world as well as america experience chronic pain

1.5 bil worldwide
more than 100 mil americans

15

What is the most commonly prescribed analgesic

Opiods
they are derived from opium poppy (morphine, codeine)

16

What is Morphine's MOA

agonist at Mu opioid receptors
this inhibits pain-transmitting nerves int he brain and spinal cord via:
inhibiting Ca2+ conductance
increasing K+ conductance

17

What is the therapeutic indication of morphine

Moderate to severe pain
first-line therapy in MI-related pain
Second or third-line therapy for cough

18

What are the pharmacokinetics of morphine

Half-life is variable (2-4 hours)
converted to morphine-6-glucorunide in the liver
excreted in the urine as morphine-3-glucouronide

19

What are the adverse effects of morphine

Sedation, pruritus(itching), N/V, miosis(constricting of pupils), constipation, respiratory suppression, euphoria

20

What are the contraindications of Morphine

CV - cor pulmonale, hemorrhage (shortness of breath, hypotension
respiratory - emphysema, asthma
hepatic disease (inc in bioavailability)
renal disease (impaired clearance (can increase hald-life by 10xs)