Motor Control - Voluntary Control Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Motor Control - Voluntary Control Deck (57):
1

name the several areas associates with the production of voluntary movement

primary motor cortex
supplementary motor cortex
premotor cortez
prefrontal crotex
parietal cortex

2

reaching and grasping are

two different movements that require two different inds of visual information, which the brain handles differently

3

reaching - relation to visual inputs

higher processing of visual inputs
dorsal pathway from occipital cortex to the parietal?frontal cortex allows us to complete motor acts based on visual input

4

you need information about an object;s location in relation to your body in order to

reach effectively

5

from the visual cortex, information is relayed to what motor areas

parietaly cortex, specifically
V6A,
PEC
MIP
and VIP

6

The end result of sending visual information to the parietal cortex

the VIP creates a rough map of the pace around you, including the object you're reaching for

7

from the VIP information is sent where

f4 within the premotor cortex

8

the end result of sending visual information to f4 premotor

F4 creates a detailed map of the space around you,
neurons here are particularly excited by proximity

9

second pathway to use visual information and convert to motor - relies on the

superior parietal cortex

10

the superior parietal cortex receives

visual information about where your arm is in space, since that;s what;s moving

11

information about where your arm is in space is sent to

superior parietal cortex to F2 in the premotor cortex

12

end result of sending visual information to F2

F2 constructs a related map but it is of where your arm is in relationship to your body and the things around you

13

visual cues for grasping

dependant on the purpose of your action

14

anterior intraparietal area and PFG contain neurons that respond to seeing an object to grasp

visually dominant

15

anterior intraparietal area and PFG are parts of the

inferior parietal cortex

16

the anterior intraparietal area dn PFG also contains a set of neurons that are actie when grasping the object =

motor dominant

17

the anterior intraparietal area dn PFG also contains a set of neurons that are active that respond to seeing the object to grasp AND when grasping

visuomotor neurons

18

anterior intraparietal area and pfg relay enformation to

F5

19

F5 neurons fire with the ____ not the ___

goal (purpose)
motor act

so the f5 neurons are likely active in two setting where the goal is the same, even if the motor action is very different.

20

Neural components for reaching for an object - summary

need visual map of object in relation to you
primary visual cortex (via dorsal pathway)-->VIP creates map--> relays to F4, which creates a detailed map

parallel pathway creates a map of where your ARM is in relation to you, using superior parietal cortex--> F2

21

Neural components for grasp - summary

areas of the inferior parietal cortex realty information to F5--> f5 condos the GOAL of the action

22

Grasping inputs and reching inputs are then sent on to be turned into

motion

23

receives the sensory information required to move (particularly f4 and f5 - the ventral parts)

premotor cortex

24

dorsal part applies the rules that determine whether it is appropriate to move

premotor cortex

25

identifies the intent of motion and decides what motion to produce

premotor cortex

26

supplementary cortex divisions (2)

supplementary motor area=SMA= postural control
presupplementary area =preSMA=plans the motor program, required to make the action occur

27

organizes motor sequences

supplementary motor cortex

28

acquire motor skills

supplementary motor cortex

29

executive control (particularly the decision to switch actions /strategies)

supplementary cortex

30

primary motor cortex - description

precentral gyrus
controls specific movements
regions of the body that do fine motions have proportionally high representation
arranged in columns

31

primary motor cortex stimulation of neurons

stimulation of any gien column produces a specific movement

if we are in an area that controls a more general motion, simulation may produce contraction of a GROUP of muscles

32

primary motor cortex - layer 4 receives

sensory input (mm and joint proprioceptors, among others)

33

primary motor cortex - layer 5

output for corticospinal (pyramidal ) pathway

34

primary motor cortex - two sets of neurons in each column

one to start the motion
one to maintain it as long as necessary

35

primary motor cortex - neighboring columns control

related motions, not neighboring muscles

36

primary motor cortex - two KINDS of columns

on/off for agonist m
off/on for antagonist muscle

37

each individual motion required to grab and object war coded for by

a column in the primary motor cortex

38

premotor cortex

determine whether it is okay to move
identifies the goal and the motion required to meet that goal

39

supplementary motor cortex

postural controls
identifies specific motor sequins required
changes tactics if necessary
p

40

primary motor cortex

codes the individual motions required to reach goal

41

in addition to the cerebral cortex, what brain structure is also important for reaching for an object

cerebellum

42

Role of the cerebellem

sequence complex actions
correct force/direction
balance and eye movements
learning complex actions

43

spinocerebellum - central

postural control

44

spinocerebellum - either side of the vermis

force and direction

45

cerebrocerebellem (lateral regions)

plan complex motions
sequence

46

vestbulocerebellem

balance/eyemovements
future not current

47

outputs from the cerebellum are via the

deep cerebellar nuclei

48

the deep cerebellar nuclei include

dentate nucleus
fastigial nucleus
interpositus (globose, emoliformis)

49

cells leaving the deep nuclei are generally

excitatory to contration

50

vermis (spinocerebellum) inputs

vestibular
visual and auditory
efferent copy (what brain sends to muscle)

51

vermis (spinocerebellum) outputs

interpositius n
fstigial n
to rubrospinal tract

52

spinocerebellum (lateral parts) inputs

muscle afferent
efferent copy (what brain sends to muscle)

53

spinocerebellum (lateral parts) outputs

interpositis nucleus
rubrospinal tract

54

cerebrocerebellum inputs

cerebral cortex (all)

55

cerebrocerebellum outputs

dentate
back to cortex

56

vestibulocerebellum - inputs

vestibular apparatus (direct or indirect)

57

vestibulocerebellum - output

fastcial nucleus
vestibular nuclei
ascend or descend