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Flashcards in Neurophysiology of Emotion Deck (75)
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1

The limbic system is now recognized to control, or be involved in controlling

emotional behavior
motivational drives

2

Anatomy of the limbic system - Hypothalamus

key player
emotional experience
physiological responses (connection to ANS)

3

Anatomy of the limbic system - Olfactory areas (para-olfactory)

olfaction and emotion strongly linked
parts of limbic system deal with olfaction (in addition to emotion)

4

Anatomy of the limbic system - Thalamus

anterior nucleus part of papez circuit
other regions involved in both input and output of limbic system

5

Anatomy of the limbic system - Basal Ganglia

particularly nucleus accumbens
other regions (e.g. putamen) play a DIFFERENT role in emotion

6

Anatomy of the limbic system - Hippocampus

another part of the papez circuit
plays a role in learning/memory
Memory and emotion are strongly linked

7

Anatomy of the limbic system - Amybdala

association with emotion recognized very early
particularly fear
plays a role in learning and memory

8

Anatomy of the limbic system - Cingulate cortex

mostly paleocortex (3 cell layers)
some parts have full 6 layers
important feature - many of these neurons show after discharge (like when you are mad and can't let it go)

9

7 brain regions and their function in emotion

1. hypothalamus - used to create physiologic response to emotion
2. olfacctory cortex - odors as stong stimulus for emotion
3. Thalamus - relays sensory information inot system
4. Basal Ganglia - tied to pleasure, disgust
5. Hippocampus - links emotion to memory creation
6. Amygdala - strongly linked with fear, was considered core of all emotional responses
7. anterior cingulate cortex - higher level control, sadness

10

more recent research has provided evidence for the idea that certain :basic: emotions are common across cultures? species (6) and controlled by _____

separate neural substrates
1. pleasure
2. fear
3. sadness
4. avoidance
5. disgust
6. anger

11

It appears that the neural circuits for _________ are also involved in producing _______ in ourselves

regognizing emotion in others
that emotion

12

Someone who cannot experience an emotion cannot

recognize it in someone else

13

Mirror neuron system

these neurons fire both when you do something (smile) and when you see someone else do that.

their role in imitation and imitative learning are more clear cut, but it is becoming clearer that they are important in emotional processing

14

The core of the reward/pleasure system

Ventral tegmental area
nucleus accumbens

15

Major input to the pleasure/reward system sends

DOPAMINE to target neurons
(very closely related to the SNPc)

16

The ventral segmental area receives excitatory input from (3)

pre-frontal cortex
lateral hypothalamus
laterodorsal tegmental N.

17

The ventral segmental area receives excitatory input from (3) places - what are the NT they use

Pre frontal cortex - EAA
lateral hypothalamus - orexin
laterodorsal tegmental N - Ach

18

The ventral segmental area receives excitatory input from (3) places - what are the NT they use

Pre frontal cortex - EAA
lateral hypothalamus - orexin
laterodorsal tegmental N - Ach

19

The ventral segmental area provides a ______ input to the ________ via the _______

dopaminergic
nucleus accumbens
median forebrain bundle

20

The nucleus accumbens

the third nucleus in the striatum
often referred to as the ventral striatum
has the same basic micro-circutry as the others
direct and indirect pathways

21

In addition to dopaminergic VTA input, the NAc also receives excitatory inputs from (3).
These inputs appear to use what NT?

prefrontal cortex
amygdala
hippocampus

EAA

22

Output from NAc is to
NAc use what NT here

the prefrontal cortex
GABA

23

NAc also sends a GABAergic input where

BACK to the VTA
the cotransmitter dynorphin is also released in the VTA

24

The pleasure/reward systems receive inputs from multiple_____

opioid pathways

25

particular importance of opioid inputs to the VTA

opioid inputs to the VTA inhibit a subset of GABAergic interneurons.

This INCREASES the release of dopamine in the nucleus accumbens

26

Describe the reward (pleasure) system and how the 3 nuclei participate in producing pleasure

1. VTA - receives inputs and releases dopamine in NA to lead to feeling of pleasure
2. NAc - part of striatum - D1 activate direct; D3 inhibit indirect pathways. When active, GABA is released to produce pleasure
3. prefrontal cortex - receives input allowing pleasure from NAc

27

The input to the NAc is mediated by ________, it;s effect in the NAc is generally _____

Dopamine
inhibitory

28

VTA releases ______ onto ______, which then releases less _______ to the ______= PLEASURE

dopamine
NAc (inhibitory)
GABA
prefrontal cortex

29

The effect of dopamine release is to _________ in the prefrontal cortex and allow _______

decrease GABA releas
activity of the reward pathways

30

The effect of dopamine release is to _________ in the prefrontal cortex and allow _______

decrease GABA releas
activity of the reward pathways