Neurophysiology of Emotion Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Neurophysiology of Emotion Deck (75):
1

The limbic system is now recognized to control, or be involved in controlling

emotional behavior
motivational drives

2

Anatomy of the limbic system - Hypothalamus

key player
emotional experience
physiological responses (connection to ANS)

3

Anatomy of the limbic system - Olfactory areas (para-olfactory)

olfaction and emotion strongly linked
parts of limbic system deal with olfaction (in addition to emotion)

4

Anatomy of the limbic system - Thalamus

anterior nucleus part of papez circuit
other regions involved in both input and output of limbic system

5

Anatomy of the limbic system - Basal Ganglia

particularly nucleus accumbens
other regions (e.g. putamen) play a DIFFERENT role in emotion

6

Anatomy of the limbic system - Hippocampus

another part of the papez circuit
plays a role in learning/memory
Memory and emotion are strongly linked

7

Anatomy of the limbic system - Amybdala

association with emotion recognized very early
particularly fear
plays a role in learning and memory

8

Anatomy of the limbic system - Cingulate cortex

mostly paleocortex (3 cell layers)
some parts have full 6 layers
important feature - many of these neurons show after discharge (like when you are mad and can't let it go)

9

7 brain regions and their function in emotion

1. hypothalamus - used to create physiologic response to emotion
2. olfacctory cortex - odors as stong stimulus for emotion
3. Thalamus - relays sensory information inot system
4. Basal Ganglia - tied to pleasure, disgust
5. Hippocampus - links emotion to memory creation
6. Amygdala - strongly linked with fear, was considered core of all emotional responses
7. anterior cingulate cortex - higher level control, sadness

10

more recent research has provided evidence for the idea that certain :basic: emotions are common across cultures? species (6) and controlled by _____

separate neural substrates
1. pleasure
2. fear
3. sadness
4. avoidance
5. disgust
6. anger

11

It appears that the neural circuits for _________ are also involved in producing _______ in ourselves

regognizing emotion in others
that emotion

12

Someone who cannot experience an emotion cannot

recognize it in someone else

13

Mirror neuron system

these neurons fire both when you do something (smile) and when you see someone else do that.

their role in imitation and imitative learning are more clear cut, but it is becoming clearer that they are important in emotional processing

14

The core of the reward/pleasure system

Ventral tegmental area
nucleus accumbens

15

Major input to the pleasure/reward system sends

DOPAMINE to target neurons
(very closely related to the SNPc)

16

The ventral segmental area receives excitatory input from (3)

pre-frontal cortex
lateral hypothalamus
laterodorsal tegmental N.

17

The ventral segmental area receives excitatory input from (3) places - what are the NT they use

Pre frontal cortex - EAA
lateral hypothalamus - orexin
laterodorsal tegmental N - Ach

18

The ventral segmental area receives excitatory input from (3) places - what are the NT they use

Pre frontal cortex - EAA
lateral hypothalamus - orexin
laterodorsal tegmental N - Ach

19

The ventral segmental area provides a ______ input to the ________ via the _______

dopaminergic
nucleus accumbens
median forebrain bundle

20

The nucleus accumbens

the third nucleus in the striatum
often referred to as the ventral striatum
has the same basic micro-circutry as the others
direct and indirect pathways

21

In addition to dopaminergic VTA input, the NAc also receives excitatory inputs from (3).
These inputs appear to use what NT?

prefrontal cortex
amygdala
hippocampus

EAA

22

Output from NAc is to
NAc use what NT here

the prefrontal cortex
GABA

23

NAc also sends a GABAergic input where

BACK to the VTA
the cotransmitter dynorphin is also released in the VTA

24

The pleasure/reward systems receive inputs from multiple_____

opioid pathways

25

particular importance of opioid inputs to the VTA

opioid inputs to the VTA inhibit a subset of GABAergic interneurons.

This INCREASES the release of dopamine in the nucleus accumbens

26

Describe the reward (pleasure) system and how the 3 nuclei participate in producing pleasure

1. VTA - receives inputs and releases dopamine in NA to lead to feeling of pleasure
2. NAc - part of striatum - D1 activate direct; D3 inhibit indirect pathways. When active, GABA is released to produce pleasure
3. prefrontal cortex - receives input allowing pleasure from NAc

27

The input to the NAc is mediated by ________, it;s effect in the NAc is generally _____

Dopamine
inhibitory

28

VTA releases ______ onto ______, which then releases less _______ to the ______= PLEASURE

dopamine
NAc (inhibitory)
GABA
prefrontal cortex

29

The effect of dopamine release is to _________ in the prefrontal cortex and allow _______

decrease GABA releas
activity of the reward pathways

30

The effect of dopamine release is to _________ in the prefrontal cortex and allow _______

decrease GABA releas
activity of the reward pathways

31

Producing pleasure - activation
1. via EAA to VTA
2. via orexin to VTA

1. prefrontal cortex, laterodorsal tegmental nucleus
2. lateral hypothalamic nucleus

32

'Preventing pleasure' - Activation of NAc
via increased EAA to NAc

prefrontal cortex, amygdala, hippocampus

33

Producing pleasure - the opiods

increased opiods come from multiple sources and work as a diffuse system to increase pleasure (work on VTA and NAc)

34

Opiod input system also activates

locus ceruleus
periaqueductal grey

35

What is the point?

to reinforce the occurrence of certain behaviors that are important for our survival (like eating)

36

The pleasure/reward system is basically a ________ system

positive feedback

37

Reward/pleasure system - dopamine

released by VTA neurons who's axons terminate in the NAc
Binds to D1, D2, D3 receptors,
D2 or D3 inhibitory, predominate

38

Reward/pleasure system - GABA

released by NAc neurons whose axons terminate in the prefrontal cortex
also fibers terminating in VTA from NAc or interneruons within VTA

39

Reward/pleasure system - the opiods

major action - inhibit GABA interneuron in VTA --> VTA releases more dopamine in NA --> intense feeling of pleasure (euphoria)

40

To produce pleasure
VTA
Nac
GABA
experience

activate VTA
inhibit the NAc
less GABA in the prefrontal cortex
experience pleasure

41

To inhibit pleasure
VTA
NAc
GABA
experience

-
activate the NAc
more GABA in the prefrontal cortex
prevent pleasure

42

Two kinds of fear

Innate (unconditioned)
learned (conditioned)

43

Innate (unconditioned) fear

fear that requires no experience
in animals, associated with olfactory cues
Humans - debated, falling and loud noises most frequently cited

44

Learned (conditioned) fear

learned fom experience
in humans, the experience can be indirect (watching someone else experience a frightening thing)

45

Learned (conditioned) fear

learned fom experience
in humans, the experience can be indirect (watching someone else experience a frightening thing)

46

Neuroanatomical basis for fear - amygdala

processing and recognition of social clues related to fear
emotional conditioning in response to fear
memory

47

Neuroanatomical basis for fear - inputs

inputs (both the thalamic and via the cortex) arrive at the lateral nucleus of the amygdala

48

The lateral nucleus of the amygdala does what?

integrates the inputs (i.e.. the pairing of sound and an electrical shock)

49

The paired information is sent from the lateral nucleus of the amygdala to where?

to the basal and intercalated nuclei for additional processing

50

information about fear from the lateral, basal and intercalated nuclei is sent to___________ which decides________. The ______ is an important component of generating the physiologic responses

the central nucleus of the amygdala
what responses are required and relays information appropriately
hypothalamus

51

In the individual with damage to the amygdala, fear is

not perceived, therefore conditioning related to fear does not occur

52

Neuroanatomical basis for Sadness - anatomical substrate

lower sector of the anterior cingulate cortex
strongly activated when recalling sad events

53

Neuroanatomical basis for Avoidance - anatomical substrate

lateral posterior hypothalamus
dorsal midbrain
entorhinal cortex

54

Although we don;t understand the system particularly well, the punishment/avoidace system is designed to oppose the occurrence of behavior. Describe long term and short term

in the long term, behavior usually has negative consequences, but the short term may be neutral or positive

55

Neuroanatomical basis for disgust - anatomical substrate

insular cortex/putame
processing and recognition of social cues related to disgust
damage (including huntington's disease) abolishes

56

Neuroanatomical basis for Anger/rage

amygdala
requires dopaminergicc input acting at D2 receptors

57

inhibition of anger/rage requires

neocortex
ventromedial hypothalamic nuclei
septal nuclei

58

Pleasure

VTA, NA - dopamine. positive feedback system to encourage behavior

59

Anger

involves amygdala and dopaminergic D2 receptor activation

60

Fear

inputs from thalamus and cortex come into lateral n of amygdala, pressed and sent to basal and intercalated n. , outflow from amygdala via central n. to various places for physiologic consequence

61

Disgust

putamen and insular cortex is strongly involved (loss of ability to recognize in Huntingtons dz)

62

Sadness

lower pole of anterior cingulate cortex

63

Integrating the inputs Step 1 - the anterior cingulate Cx
functionally divided into 2 regions

Ventral= affective
dorsal = cognitive

64

Integrating the inputs Step 1 - the anterior cingulate Cx
Role in emotion

integration of visceral, attentional and emotional input
Regulation of AFFECT - particularly top-down control (controlling our emotions)
Monitors or detects conflict between our function al state (right now) and new information that has potential or motivational consequences.

It does;t decide what to do, but relays the information to…. the prefrontal cx

65

Integrating the inputs Step 2 - the prefrontal cx
Two divisions

ventromedial
dorsolateral

66

Integrating the inputs Step 2 - the prefrontal cx
ventromedial division

receives input from
amygdala, hippocampus, temporal visual association area, dorsolateral prefrontal cx (the other division)

67

Integrating the inputs Step 2 - the prefrontal cx
ventromedial division

receives input from
amygdala, hippocampus, temporal visual association area, dorsolateral prefrontal cx (the other division)

68

Integrating the inputs Step 2 - the prefrontal cx
dorsolateral division

receives input from
motor areas, including basal ganglia, pre and supplementary motor cortex
cingulate cortex, especially parts related to performance monitoring
several cortical association areas

69

Integrating the inputs Step 2 - the prefrontal cx
division we are interested in?

Ventromedial division

70

Integrating the inputs Step 2 - the prefrontal cx
Three roles

Reward processing
integration of bodily signals
top down regulation

71

Integrating the inputs Step 2 - the prefrontal cx
reward processing

(orbitofrontal) - with the amygdala, we link new stimulus to a primary reward

72

Integrating the inputs Step 2 - the prefrontal cx
integration of bodily signals

(ventromedial prefrontal) - the "gut feeling" decision when logical analysis is unable to help

73

Integrating the inputs Step 2 - the prefrontal cx
top down regulation

especially towards delayed gratification

74

Role of anterior cingulate cx - summary

ventral region
integration of all sensory and emotional processing
controlling emotional display
conflict detection - what new information has the power to change how i;m feeling

75

Role of prefrontal cortex - summary

ventromedial subdivision
reward processing
gut-feeling
delayed gratification