Flashcards in Ventricular System and Blood Vessels Deck (80)
Imaginary T shaped axis which defines the way sections are discribed in the brain
vertical componenet extends through central aspect of spinal cord and brainstem to level of diechephalon
horizontal component extends from the frontal to occiptital poles of the cerebral hemispheres on midline
diffuse axonal shearing
when brain bumps up agains skull, get contusions, hemorrhaging and diffuse axonal shearing
= when axons pulled away from where they are supposed to be. disconnected from environment
refers to sensory or motor deficits occuring on the opposite side of the causative lesion
refers to sensory or motor deficits occuring on the same side as the causative lesion
various sensory stimuli, working in isolation or combination, may elicit a particular form of sensation depending upon the number and type of receptors and teh receptor patterns or fields.
some sensory or motor pathways convey their fibers in a highly organized, laminated fashion as they ascend or descend to dpecific regions of the cortex or body
cartoon representation of exaggerated proportions of the cortical map
aggregation of neuronal cell bodies in the CNS
aggregation of neuronal cell bodies in the PNS
sheet like layer of gray matter covering the cerebral hemispheres.
Other names for gray matter
body, column, center, lamina
bundle of nerve fibers, nothing in particular
bundle of nerve fibers belonging to a particular system in the CNS
specifically defined fasciculus of nerve fibers that have common origin, termination and function
bundle of crossed, secondary nerve fibers in a CONSCIOUS SENSORY PATHWAY
(conveys information from the opposite side of the body)
What important things are found in the subarachanoid space
CSF and major arteries.
if you rupture an artery here, you bleed into subarachnoid space, blood present in CSF
with unilateral space-occupying lesions of the cerebrum
herniate across midline beneath free edge of falx
may not present clinical deficits associated with herniation
rupture of meningeal vessel
pt post-traumatic history is unconsciousness followed by rapid recovery
after a few hours, increase in supratentorial cranial volume causes herniation
profuse high-pressured bleeding, rapidly extends epidural space.
falx herniation or tentorial herniation
TX - emergency operation to evacuate the hematoma
tentorial herniation (aka_____)
through the tentoial notch
displaces the midbrain, bilateral compression of the midbrain reticular formation results in progressive decrease in the level of consciousness
head trauma may cause cerebral veins to rupture as the cross subdural space
these veins are vulnerable to sheer forces created between movement of brain versus dura
space occupying hematoma in subdural space
signs and symptoms are same as epidural hematomas, but time onset may be delayed for days or weeks.
progression of signs and symptoms much more insididous. due to slower accumulation
can have acute onset
display various states of lethargy, seizures, or headaches.
inchildren associated with skull fracture, in elderly minor head trauma may result in subdural hematoma due to more fragile blood vessels
Trauma to the midbrain
result may be some degree of temporary or permanent coma, depending upon the amount of damage to the midbrain reticular formation.
RF is essential for consciousness
in most cases the superior sagittal sinus empties into
right tranverse sinus
in most cases the straigh sinus drains directly into
left transverse sinus
thrombosis of the posterior portion of the superior venous sinus or right transverse venous sinus results in
cortical ischemia and or necrosis
thrombosis of the posterior portion of th straight venous sinus or left tranverse venous sinus results in
ischemia and or necrosis of structures in the deep cerebrum. this is usually fatal.
increased ICP applies a cuff-like pressure to small veins on optic nerve, via the adjacent subarachnoid extension.
decreased drainage from retina results in edema of the retina and selling of optic disc
all major blood vessels of CNS pass through the subarachnoid space. rupture in the space is called subarachnoid hemmorhage, indicated by presence of erythrocytes in CSF.
cerebral contusion may also result in subarachnoid hemorrhage
what are the two subarachnoid cisterns
cerebellomedullary cistern (cisterna magna) - just above foramen magnum and posterior to the medulla
superior cistern (cisterna ambiens) - located posterior to pineal gland
where is CSF resorbed
at arachnoid villi that protrude into the superior saggital sinus