Ventricular System and Blood Vessels Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Ventricular System and Blood Vessels Deck (80)
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Imaginary T shaped axis which defines the way sections are discribed in the brain

neuraxis

vertical componenet extends through central aspect of spinal cord and brainstem to level of diechephalon
horizontal component extends from the frontal to occiptital poles of the cerebral hemispheres on midline

1

diffuse axonal shearing

when brain bumps up agains skull, get contusions, hemorrhaging and diffuse axonal shearing
= when axons pulled away from where they are supposed to be. disconnected from environment

2

Contralateral

refers to sensory or motor deficits occuring on the opposite side of the causative lesion

3

ipsilateral

refers to sensory or motor deficits occuring on the same side as the causative lesion

4

Modality

various sensory stimuli, working in isolation or combination, may elicit a particular form of sensation depending upon the number and type of receptors and teh receptor patterns or fields.

5

Somatotopic

some sensory or motor pathways convey their fibers in a highly organized, laminated fashion as they ascend or descend to dpecific regions of the cortex or body

6

cartoon representation of exaggerated proportions of the cortical map

homunclus

7

nucleus

aggregation of neuronal cell bodies in the CNS

8

ganglion

aggregation of neuronal cell bodies in the PNS

9

cortex

sheet like layer of gray matter covering the cerebral hemispheres.

10

Other names for gray matter

body, column, center, lamina

11

Funiculus

white matter
bundle of nerve fibers, nothing in particular

12

fasciculus

bundle of nerve fibers belonging to a particular system in the CNS
white matter

13

tract

specifically defined fasciculus of nerve fibers that have common origin, termination and function
white matter

14

Leminiscus

bundle of crossed, secondary nerve fibers in a CONSCIOUS SENSORY PATHWAY

(conveys information from the opposite side of the body)
white matter

15

What important things are found in the subarachanoid space

CSF and major arteries.

if you rupture an artery here, you bleed into subarachnoid space, blood present in CSF

16

Falx herniation

with unilateral space-occupying lesions of the cerebrum
herniate across midline beneath free edge of falx
may not present clinical deficits associated with herniation

17

Epidural hematoma

rupture of meningeal vessel
pt post-traumatic history is unconsciousness followed by rapid recovery
after a few hours, increase in supratentorial cranial volume causes herniation
profuse high-pressured bleeding, rapidly extends epidural space.
falx herniation or tentorial herniation
TX - emergency operation to evacuate the hematoma

18

tentorial herniation (aka_____)

uncal herniation
through the tentoial notch
displaces the midbrain, bilateral compression of the midbrain reticular formation results in progressive decrease in the level of consciousness

19

subdural hematoma

head trauma may cause cerebral veins to rupture as the cross subdural space
these veins are vulnerable to sheer forces created between movement of brain versus dura
space occupying hematoma in subdural space
signs and symptoms are same as epidural hematomas, but time onset may be delayed for days or weeks.
progression of signs and symptoms much more insididous. due to slower accumulation
can have acute onset

display various states of lethargy, seizures, or headaches.
inchildren associated with skull fracture, in elderly minor head trauma may result in subdural hematoma due to more fragile blood vessels

20

Trauma to the midbrain

result may be some degree of temporary or permanent coma, depending upon the amount of damage to the midbrain reticular formation.
RF is essential for consciousness

21

in most cases the superior sagittal sinus empties into

right tranverse sinus

22

in most cases the straigh sinus drains directly into

left transverse sinus

23

thrombosis of the posterior portion of the superior venous sinus or right transverse venous sinus results in

cortical ischemia and or necrosis

24

thrombosis of the posterior portion of th straight venous sinus or left tranverse venous sinus results in

ischemia and or necrosis of structures in the deep cerebrum. this is usually fatal.

25

Papilledema

increased ICP applies a cuff-like pressure to small veins on optic nerve, via the adjacent subarachnoid extension.
decreased drainage from retina results in edema of the retina and selling of optic disc

26

Subarachnoid hemorrhage

all major blood vessels of CNS pass through the subarachnoid space. rupture in the space is called subarachnoid hemmorhage, indicated by presence of erythrocytes in CSF.

cerebral contusion may also result in subarachnoid hemorrhage

27

what are the two subarachnoid cisterns

cerebellomedullary cistern (cisterna magna) - just above foramen magnum and posterior to the medulla
superior cistern (cisterna ambiens) - located posterior to pineal gland

28

where is CSF resorbed

at arachnoid villi that protrude into the superior saggital sinus

29

how much csf is prduced each day

600-700 ml