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Flashcards in Motor Control - Basal Ganglia Deck (54)
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1

without the basal ganglia, you'll either end up

a) being unable to initiate the motion that will grab an objet
b) getting 'stuck' at the start of the motion, only able to repeat the action

2

the basal ganglia is actually

several nuclei in a loosely arranged group.

3

not all nuclei in the basal ganglia participate in motor control, but

most do

4

Nuclei of the basal ganglia

subthalamic nucleus
substantia nigra pars compacta
substantia nigra pars reticulata
putamen and caudate= striatum
globus pallidus internal (medial) segment
globus pallid us external (lateral) segment

5

striatium =

putamen and caudate nucleus

6

Nigrostriatal dopaminergic system
from
to
effects

SNPC
nuclei of striatum
D1 receptors +, D2 receptors -

7

The intrastriatal cholinergic system
between
effects

between the nuclei of the striatum
excitatiory

8

The striatonigral Gaba-ergig pathway
from
aka
leads to

stratum to the SNPR and Gpi
"the direct pathway"
initiation of movement

9

information leaves the basal ganglia via the

SNPR and GPi

10

the SNPR and the GPi project to the

thalamus, releasing GABA within the thalamus
-to cortex via thalamus
-to brainstem and spinal cord

11

Nuclei of the basal ganglia

substantia nigra
-pars compacta
-pars reticulata
striatum
-caudate
-putamen
Globus pallidus
-external segment
-internal segment
subthalamic nucleus

12

neurotransmitters of the Basal ganglia (3)

dopamine
cholinergic
gabanergic

13

Dopamine system in basal ganglia
cell bodies
axons
receptors

substantia nigra pars compacta
travel to the striatum
D1 and D2 receptors on different neurons in striatum

14

CHolinergic system in the basal ganglia
cell bodies
axons
function

neurons of striatum
synaps on other neurons in striatum
excitation

15

GABAergic system in the basal ganglia
cell bodies
axons
function

striatum
travel to Globus pallid us internal segment and the substantial nigra pars reticulate
inhibition

16

Inputs of the basal ganglia

substantia nigra pars compacta receives input and relays them to the striatum

17

outputs of the basal ganglia

GPi and SNPR send axons to the thalamus - when activated they release GABA at synapses in the thalamus=inhibition of thalamus

18

Motor control - basal ganglia
what they do

control begining and to a lesser extent the end of movement

19

how do the basal ganglia work

by inhibition and withdrawal of that inhibition (to start movement)
excess of gabba

20

Basal ganglia work from ___via ____

cortex via corticostriate track

21

What receives the input for the basal ganglia

STRIATUM

22

Nigrostriatal path
from
tonic condition
NT

from SNPC
tonically active
dopaminergic

23

Pars compact of substantial niagra sends _______ to act on the ____

dopamine Striatum

24

the ____ receives most?all of the input related to motor control

putamen

25

the effect of dopamine released in the striatum that there are

two distict pathways within the basal ganglia that control motion

26

Direct pathway in the basal ganglia that controls motion

D1
excited by dopamine
allows motion

27

Indirect pathway in the basal ganglia that controls motion

D2
inhibited by dopamine, excited by EAA/Ach
inhibits motion

28

The direct pathway - from striatum to

SNPR and GPI
SNPC -->dopamine to Striatum=+
Striatal cell release GABA--> SNPR and GPI (-)
SNPR and GPi are inhibited and therefore release less GABA in the thalamus (thalamus is less inhibited)

29

by inhibiting the SNPR and GPi, LESS GABBA is released in the ______. The _____ is then free to ______ allowing

thalamus.
thalamus is then free to excite the cortex, allowing the initiation of movement

30

indirect pathway - from SNPCis _____ due to

inhibitory
striatal neurons that are part of the indirect pathway due to D2 reeptors