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02 - Axial - Cervical Spine > Movements > Flashcards

Flashcards in Movements Deck (6)
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1

Flexion

> Range = 80 degrees (C0 - C1 ~ 10 degrees)
> Limited by:
- Upper cervical: tectorial membrane, posterior atlanto-occipital membrane, alar + cruciform ligament (incl. transverse ligament) + ligametum nuchae
- Lower cervical: pll, flavum, interspinous, nuchae
+ tension in extensors
> Produced by:
- Upper: SCM, longus capitis (assisted by rectus capitis anterior and lateralis)
- Lower: SCM, longus colli + scaleni

2

Extension

> Range = 60 degrees (~10 degrees @ C0-C1)
> Limited by:
- upper: anterior atlanto- occipital membrane
- lower: anterior longitudinal ligament
+ tension in flexors
> Produced by:
- Upper: Trapezius, splenius capitis, erector spinae (incl. semispinalis capitis)
+ Suboccipital extensors
- Lower: levator scapulae, splenius cervicis

3

Side Flexion

> Range = 20-45 degrees each side
> Limited by: alar ligaments, intertransverse ligaments + tension in contralateral side
> Produced by:
- Upper: SCM, splenius capitis, trapezius, erector spinae
- Lower: Scalenes, splenius cervicis, levator scapulae

4

Rotation

> Range: 70-90 degrees in each direction
> Limited by: Alar ligaments, atlanto-occipital membranes, intertransverse ligaments
+ tension in ipsilateral muscles
> Produced by:
- Upper: SCM and splenius capitis
- Lower: scalenes anterior and posterior, semispinalis cervicis + splenius cervicis

5

Protraction

> Upper extension and lower flexion
> Upper extension:
- erector spinae (longissimus capitis, semispinalis capitis)
- splenius capitis
+ suboccipital extensors
> Lower flexion
- SCM
- Anterior + middle scaleni
- longus colli


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6

Retraction

> Upper flexion and lower extension
> Lower extension
- Splenius cervicis
- semispinalis cervicis
- longissimus cervicis
> Upper flexion
- longus capitis
- rectus capitis anterior + lateralis
- SCM