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Flashcards in MSK S3 complete Deck (199):
0

Which nerve supplies the 3 muscles in the anterior compartment of the arm? What are these muscles?

Musculocutaneous
BBC
Biceps
brachialis
Corocobrachialis

1

Which arm of the biceps Brachii is found where?

Long - outside or lateral
Short - inside

2

Where does the long head of the biceps originate?

Supraglenoid tubercle

3

Where does the short head of the biceps originate?

Corocoid process

4

Where do the biceps attach distally? Via what?

The radial tuberosity
By the bicipital aponeurosis

5

What is the role of the biceps?

Supination of the forearm and flexes arm and elbow and shoulder

6

What is the role of the corocobrachialis?

It is a flexor and adductor of the arm

7

Where is the brachialis found?

More distally that the other muscles of the upper arm

8

Where does the brachialis originate?

Medial and lateral surfaces of the numeral shaft

9

Where does the brachialis insert?

Into the tuberosity of the ulna

10

What is the role of the brachialis?

It is the main flexor at the elbow

11

What are the 3 heads of the triceps called?

Long, lateral and medial heads

12

Where does the long head of the triceps originate?

Infraglenoid tubercle of the scapula

13

Where does the lateral head of the triceps originate?

Humerus, superior to the radial groove

14

Where does the medial head of the triceps originate?

Humerus, inferior to the radial groove

15

What are the triceps innervates by?

The radial nerve

16

What is the role of the triceps?

Extension of the arm at the elbow

17

Where are the greater and lesser tubercle of the humerus found?

Greater on the outside/ more laterally
Lesser on the inside/ more medially

18

What is the glenoid fossa?

The part of the scapula which joins onto the humerus

19

Where is the Supraglenoid tubercle found? What does it attach to?

Above the glenoid fossa
Long head of biceps Brachii

20

So which two muscles of the arm attach to the corocoid process?

Coracobrachialis
Short heat of biceps

21

What are the two examples of superficial veins in the arm?

Cephalic and basilic veins

22

Where do both the cephalic and basilic veins arise from?

The dorsal venous network of the hand

23

What are the triceps innervates by?

The radial nerve

24

What are superficial veins?

Veins found in the subcutaneous tissue

25

What are deep veins?

Veins found underneath the deep fascia

26

Where do the cephalic and basilic veins join? What are they joined by?

At the elbow
Joined by median cubical vein

27

How are deep veins arranged? Why are they arranged like this?

Either side of an artery
Because the pulsations of the artery aid venous return

28

What is is called when two arteries surround a vein?

Venae commit antes

29

How does the cephallic vein of the arm join up with the Axillary vessels?

In terminates in the axilla by joining the Axillary vein

30

How does the basilic vein of the arm join up with the Axillary vessels?

At the border of the teres major the vein moves deep into the arm and combines with the brachial veins to form the Axillary vein

31

The artery that runs down the arm changes name, to what and when?

SAB
Subclavian changes to Axillary at the lateral margin of the first rib which changes to brachial at the lower border of teres major

32

At what point does the Axillary artery divide into the anterior and posterior circumflex arteries?

At the humoral surgical neck

33

What do the circumflex numeral arteries supply?

The shoulder region

34

Where does the profounda Brachii arise from?

The brachial artery, immediately distal to the teres major

35

What is the role of the profounda Brachii ? Where does it run?

It runs along the radial groove of the humerus
It supplies a number of vessels at the shoulder joint

36

Where is the radial groove found?

On the posterior side of the humerus. It is where the radial nerve runs.

37

Where is the brachial artery found?

Immediately posterior the the median nerve

38

What happens as the brachial artery passes the cubical fossa?

It terminates and splits into the radial and ulnar nerves

39

From which cord of the brachial plexus does the musculocutaneous nerve arise?

Lateral

40

What are the roots of the musculocutaneous nerve?

C5 and C6

41

Which muscle does the musculocutaneous nerve pierce?

Coracobrachialis

42

Which area does the musculocutaneous nerve provide sensory innervation to?

The skin of the lateral aspect of the forearm

43

Which nerve would a stab wound to the axilla most likely effect?

Musculocutaneous

44

What are the roots of the radial nerve?

C5-T1

45

Where does the radial nerve exit the axilla?

Posterior to the brachial artery

46

What muscles of the arm does the radial nerve supply?

The triceps Brachii - first the long and medial heads and when travelling along the radial groove the lateral head

47

As the radial nerve moves inferiorly what does it do?

It accompanies the brachial artery and it innervates the lateral head of triceps

48

In order to enter The forearm what does the radial nerve do?

It moves anteriorly over the lateral epicondyle
Moves through the cubical fossa

49

Once the radial nerve has entered the forearm what does it do?

Splits into s deep and superficial branch

50

What is the role of the deep branch of the radial nerve?

It is a motor branch

51

What is the role of the superficial branch of the radial nerve?

It is a sensory branch

52

What makes up the lateral border of the cubical fossa?

The medial border of the brachioradialis

53

What makes up the medial border of the cubical fossa?

The lateral border of the pronator teres

54

What makes up the superior border of the cubical fossa?

An imaginary line between the epicondyles

55

What are the 4 things found in the cubital fossa? What pneumonic helps you to remember this?

Really need beer to be at my nicest
Radial nerve, biceps tendon, brachial artery, median nerve

56

What makes up to roof of the cubital fossa?

Skin and muscle and the median cubical vein runs through it

57

What makes up the floor of the cubital fossa?

Proximal is the brachialis
Distal in the supinator muscle

58

Where do the extrinsic muscles of the shoulder originate from?

originate from the torso, and attach to the bones of the shoulder (clavicle, scapula or humerus).

59

Where do the intrinsic muscles of the shoulder originate from?

originate from the scapula and/or clavicle, and attach to the humerus.

60

What are the examples of the superficial back muscles?

The trapezius and latissimus Dorsi

61

Describe the trapezius muscle

It is a broad, flat and triangular muscle which originates from the skull and C7-T12 of the spinal cord

62

What is the trapezius innervates by?

Accessory nerve

63

What is the role of the trapezius?

It elevates and rotates the scapula

64

From what area does the latissimus Dorsi arise?

The lower part of the back

65

Where does the latissimus Dorsi attach?

It arises from the spinous processes of T6-T12, iliac crest, thoracolumbar fascia and the inferior three ribs.

66

What is latissimus Dorsi innervated by?

Thorcodorsal nerve

67

What are the anions of the latissimus Dorsi?

It extends, addicts and medially rotates the arm

68

When the fibres of the latissimus Dorsi converge to where do they attatch?

The intertubecular groove of the humerus

69

Where does the levator scapulae muscle originate from?

The neck, specifically the transverse processes of the C1-C4 vertebrae

70

Where does the levator scapulae muscle attatch to?

The medial border of the scapula

71

What is the role of the levator muscle?

It elevates the scapula

72

What is the levator scapulae muscle innervated by?

The dorsal scapular nerve

73

Which rhomboid muscle is found on top?

The minor is found on top of the major

74

What is the role of the rhomboid major?

It retracts and rotates the scapula

75

What is the role of the rhomboid minor?

It retracts and rotates the scapula

76

What nerve are the rhomboids and the levator scapulae all innervated by?

The dorsal scapula nerve

77

Where does the rhomboid major originate / attatch to?

Spinous process T2-t5
Attaches to medial border of scapula, between the scapula spine and inferior angle

78

Where does the rhomboid minor originate/attatch to?

Originates spinous processes C7-T1
Attatches to medial border of scapula at the level of the spine of the scapula.

79

Where does the deltoid muscle originate from?

The clavicle/scapula

80

Where does the deltoid muscle attatch to?

The deltoid tuberosity of the lateral surface of the humerus

81

What nerve is the deltoid muscles innervated by?

The Axillary nerve

82

What is the role of the deltoid muscle?

Anterior fibres- flex the arm at the shoulder
Posterior fibres - extend the arm at the shoulder
Middle fibres - major abductor of the arm. Takes over from the supraspinatus after 15 degrees

83

What are the 4 rotator cuff muscles? Where do they originate/attach? What do they do?

Originate from the scapula and attach to the numeral head. They pull the numeral head into the glenoid fossa, giving the glenoidhumeral joint stability.

84

Where does the supraspinatus muscle originate from/attatch to?

O: supraspinatus fossa of the scapula
A: greater tuberosity of the humerus

85

Where does the infraspinatus muscle originate from/attatch to?

O: infraspinatus fossa of the scapula
A: greater tubercle of the humerus

86

Where does the subscapularis muscle originate from/attatch to?

O: subscapula fossa (costal surface)
A: lesser tubercle of humerus

87

Where does the teres minor muscle originate from/attatch to?

O: Posterior surface of the scapula, adjacent to its lateral border
A: greater tubercle of the humerus

88

What is the main role of latissimus Dorsi?

It is an important adductor of the arm

89

What is the supraspinatus muscle innervated by?

Suprascapular nerve

90

What is the infraspinatus muscle innervated by?

Suprascapular nerve

91

What is the subscapularis muscle innervated by?

Upper and lower subscapularis nerves

92

What is the teres minor muscle innervated by?

Axillary nerve

93

What actions does the supraspinatus muscle enable?

Abduction of the arm 0-15 degrees and assists deltoid 15-90deg

94

What actions does the infraspinatus muscle enable?

Lateral rotation of the arm

95

What actions does the subscapularis muscle enable?

Medial rotation of the arm

96

What actions does the teres minor muscle enable?

Lateral rotation of the arm

97

What type of joint is the shoulder joint an example of?

A synovial joint - ball and socket

98

Why is the shoulder joint considered to be instable?

Because the head of the humerus is much larger that the glenoid fossa so there is a disproportion of articular surfaces

99

Which surfaces in the shoulder are considered to be articulating? What does this mean?

The head of the humerus and the glenoid fossa of the scapula. They are covered in hyaline cartilage

100

What 5 things help to stabilise the shoulder joint?

Muscles of the rotator cuff
Other muscles
Ligaments
Capsule
Glenoid labrum

101

What is the capsule in the shoulder joint?

It is the fibrous sheath which encloses the structure of the joint. It extends from the anatomical neck of the humerus to the border of the glenoid fossa.

102

What is the role of ligaments in the shoulder joint?

The act to reinforce the joint capsule and form the Coraco- caroming arch.

103

What 2 types of ligaments are there?

Intra and extra capsular ligaments

104

What are intra capsular ligaments also known as?

Glenohumeral ligaments

105

What are the 3 types of extra capsular ligaments?

Coracoacromial ligament
Coracohumeral ligament
Transverse numeral ligament

106

What are the 3 types of intra capsular ligaments?

Superior, middle and inferior

107

What are the 'other muscles' that stabilise the shoulder joint?

Deltoid
Long head of biceps
Long head of triceps

108

What is the role of the coracoacromial ligament?

It forms the coracoacromial arch. It lies over the shoulder joint and prevents superior displacement of the humeral head

109

What is the role of the coracohumeral ligament?

It supports the superior part of the joint capsule.

110

What is the role of the transverse humoral ligament?

Holds the tendon of the long head of biceps in place during shoulder movement.

111

Where is the coracoacromial ligament found?

Runs between the acromion and the coracoid process of the scapula. It forms the coracoacromial arch.

112

What is the coracoacromial arch formed by?

Coracoacromial ligament
Accom ion
Coracoid process

113

Where is the transverse numeral ligament found?

. It spans the distance between the two tubercles of the humerus

114

What is the role of the coracoacromial arch?

It is a strong osseoligamentous structure which overlies the numeral head preventing up displacement of the humerus

115

How do the biceps Brachii attach to the radius?

Via the radial tuberosity

116

How do the biceps Brachii attach to the ulna?

Via the bicipital aponeurosis

117

What is the muscle that causes flexion at the elbow and is an exception? Why is it an exception?

Brachioradialis
Because it is innervated by the radial nerve, not the musculocutaneous

118

Damage to what leads to winging of the scapula?

The long thoracic nerve

119

Where s the most common site for venepuncture? Why - what vein or artery?

The cubital fossa - the median cubital vein is situated anteriorly at the elbow.

120

What does the median cubital vein connect?

The basillic and cephalic veins

121

If the joint capsule is damaged and heals poorly what effect can this have?

It increased the risk of future dislocations

122

During a anterior dislocation where is the humerus forced and what effect does this have?

Anteriorly ad inferiorly into the weakest part of the capsule, below the coracoid process. Can lead to tearing of the joint capsule

123

If the joint capsule is damaged and heals poorly what effect can this have?

It increased the risk of future dislocations

124

What is the painful arc syndrome most commonly due to?

Repetitive Overuse

125

What is the cause of painful arc syndrome?

Inflammation of the muscle tendons - e.g supraspinatus tendon and also the SA bursa

126

What is the most common symptom of painful arc syndrome?

Pain in the middle of abduction (50-130 degrees) when the affected area comes into contact with the acromion

127

What is painful arc syndrome as example of?

A rotator cuff injury

128

What is the most common cause of damage to the musculocutaneous nerve?

Stab would to axilla region

129

What are the consequences of damage to the musculocutaneous nerve?

BBC muscles paralysed
Flexion at the shoulder weakened (but can still occur due to peec major)
Flexion at the elbow is weakened (but can still occur due to brachioradialis muscle
Supination of the affected limb greatly weakened - but still produced by supinator muscle

130

What is the most common cause of damage to the axillary nerve?

Trauma to the shoulder or proximal humerus such as a fracture of the humerus surgical neck

131

What are the characteristic clinical signs of a damaged axillary nerve?

In long standing cases, the paralysed deltoid muscles rapidly atrophies and the greater tuberosity can be palpated in that area

132

What side effects does a damaged axillary nerve have on motor and sensory functions?

Loss of sensation in regimental badge area
Paralysis of deltoid and teres minor muscles

133

What are the characteristic clinical signs of a damaged axillary nerve?

In long standing cases, the paralysed deltoid muscles rapidly atrophies and the greater tuberosity can be palpated in that area

134

What are the spinal roots of the ulnar nerve?

C8-T1

135

What are the motor functions of the ulnar nerve?

Innervates the muscles of the hand (apart from the thenar muscles and two lateral lumbricals), flexor carpi ulnaris and medial half of flexor digitorum profundus

136

What are the sensory functions of the ulnar nerve>

Innervates the anterior and posterior surfaces of the medial one and half fingers, and the associated palm area.

137

Describe the anatomical course of the ulnar nerve in the arm

After arising from the brachial plexus, the ulnar nerve descends down the medial side of the upper arm. At the elbow, it passes posterior to the medial epicondyle, entering the forearm

138

What is the olecrannon?

It is the thick part of the end of the ulnar which projects behind the elbow

139

Where is the coracohumeral ligament found?

From the base of the coracoid process to the anterior part of the greater tubercle

140

Where is the brachialis found?

More distally that the other muscles of the upper arm - around the elbow region

141

Where is the corocobrachialis found?

On the medial side of the arm, near the armpit

142

Where does the long head of the triceps originate?

Infraglenoid tubercle of the scapula

143

Where do the heads of the triceps originate?

Top of humerus or scapula

144

Where does the medial head of the triceps originate?

Humerus, inferior to the radial groove

145

What are the triceps innervates by?

The radial nerve

146

What are the roots of the musculocutaneous nerve?

C5, C6 and C7

147

What makes up the lateral border of the cubital fossa?

The medial border of the brachioradialis

148

What makes up the medial border of the cubital fossa?

The lateral border of the pronator teres

149

What makes up the superior border of the cubital fossa?

An imaginary line between the epicondyles

150

What are the 4 things found in the cubital fossa? What mneumonic helps you to remember this?

Really need beer to be at my nicest
Radial nerve, biceps tendon, brachial artery, median nerve

151

What are the two examples of superficial veins in the arm?

Cephalic and basilic veins

152

Where do both the cephalic and basilic veins arise from?

The dorsal venous network of the hand

153

What are superficial veins?

Veins found in the subcutaneous tissue

154

What are deep veins?

Veins found underneath the deep fascia

155

Where do the cephalic and basilic veins join? What are they joined by?

At the elbow
Joined by median cubical vein

156

How are deep veins arranged? Why are they arranged like this?

Either side of an artery
Because the pulsations of the artery aid venous return

157

What is is called when two arteries surround a vein?

Venae commit antes

158

How does the cephallic vein of the arm join up with the Axillary vessels?

In terminates in the axilla by joining the Axillary vein

159

How does the basilic vein of the arm join up with the Axillary vessels?

At the border of the teres major the vein moves deep into the arm and combines with the brachial veins to form the Axillary vein

160

The artery that runs down the arm changes name, to what and when?

SAB
Subclavian changes to Axillary at the lateral margin of the first rib which changes to brachial at the lower border of teres major

161

At what point does the Axillary artery divide into the anterior and posterior circumflex arteries?

At the humoral surgical neck

162

What do the circumflex numeral arteries supply?

The shoulder region

163

Where does the profounda Brachii arise from?

The brachial artery, immediately distal to the teres major

164

What is the role of the profounda Brachii ? Where does it run?

It runs along the radial groove of the humerus
It supplies a number of vessels at the shoulder joint

165

Where is the brachial artery found?

Immediately posterior the the median nerve

166

What happens as the brachial artery passes the cubical fossa?

It terminates and splits into the radial and ulnar nerves

167

From which cord of the brachial plexus does the musculocutaneous nerve arise?

Lateral

168

What are the roots of the musculocutaneous nerve?

C5, C6 and C7

169

Which muscle does the musculocutaneous nerve pierce?

Coracobrachialis

170

Which area does the musculocutaneous nerve provide sensory innervation to?

The skin of the lateral aspect of the forearm

171

Which nerve would a stab wound to the axilla most likely effect?

Musculocutaneous

172

What are the roots of the radial nerve?

C5-T1

173

Where does the radial nerve exit the axilla?

Posterior to the brachial artery

174

What muscles of the arm does the radial nerve supply?

The triceps Brachii - first the long and medial heads and when travelling along the radial groove the lateral head

175

As the radial nerve moves inferiorly what does it do?

It accompanies the brachial artery and it innervates the lateral head of triceps

176

In order to enter The forearm what does the radial nerve do?

It moves anteriorly over the lateral epicondyle
Moves through the cubical fossa

177

Once the radial nerve has entered the forearm what does it do?

Splits into s deep and superficial branch

178

What is the role of the deep branch of the radial nerve?

It is a motor branch

179

What is the role of the superficial branch of the radial nerve?

It is a sensory branch

180

What makes up the lateral border of the cubital fossa?

The medial border of the brachioradialis

181

Where does the latissimus Dorsi attach?

It arises from the spinous processes of T6-T12, iliac crest, thoracolumbar fascia and the inferior three ribs.

182

What are the actions of the latissimus Dorsi?

It extends, addicts and medially rotates the arm

183

Where is the levator scapulae muscle found?

The neck

184

Where does the levator scapulae muscle attatch to?

The medial border of the scapula

185

Where does the rhomboid major originate / attatch to?

Spinous process T2-t5
Attaches to medial border of scapula, between the scapula spine and inferior angle

186

Where does the rhomboid minor originate/attatch to?

Originates spinous processes C7-T1
Attatches to medial border of scapula at the level of the spine of the scapula.

187

Where is the deltoid muscle found?

On the shoulder/above the shoulder joint

188

Where does the deltoid muscle attatch to?

The deltoid tuberosity of the lateral surface of the humerus

189

What nerve is the deltoid muscles innervated by?

The Axillary nerve

190

Damage to what leads to winging of the scapula?

The long thoracic nerve

191

Where s the most common site for venepuncture? Why - what vein or artery?

The cubital fossa - the median cubital vein is situated anteriorly at the elbow.

192

What does the median cubital vein connect?

The basillic and cephalic veins

193

What are the spinal roots of the ulnar nerve?

C8-T1

194

What are the motor functions of the ulnar nerve?

Innervates the muscles of the hand (apart from the thenar muscles and two lateral lumbricals), flexor carpi ulnaris and medial half of flexor digitorum profundus

195

What are the sensory functions of the ulnar nerve>

Innervates the anterior and posterior surfaces of the medial one and half fingers, and the associated palm area.

196

Describe the anatomical course of the ulnar nerve in the arm

After arising from the brachial plexus, the ulnar nerve descends down the medial side of the upper arm. At the elbow, it passes posterior to the medial epicondyle, entering the forearm

197

Where is the coracohumeral ligament found?

From the base of the coracoid process to the anterior part of the greater tubercle

198

Which muscle in the arm can be said to have dual innervation? What is this?

Brachialis - radial and musculocutaneous nerve