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Flashcards in MSK Vertebral column Deck (42):

What are the properties of the vertebra column?

It is highly flexible and very strong


What are the 5 gross functions of the vertebral column?

Centre of gravity for the body
Attachments for bones
Attachments for trunk muscles
Protection and passage of the spinal cord
Segmental innervation of the body


Which 2 parts of the spine become secondary concavities?

The cervical and the lumbar parts


When does the cervical part of the spine become a secondary concavity?

When a young child begins to lift up their head


When does the lumbar part of the spine become a secondary concavity?

When the child begins to stand up and walk


What is the spine's shape called in the fetus? Describe more

The primary curvature - a figure of C. Anteriorly concave


What type of shape does the primary curvature have?

Anterior concave


What type of shape does the secondary cruvature have?

Posterior concave


In which parts of the spine is the primary curvature retained?

Thoracic, Sacral and Coccygeal


In what part of the spine can kyphoses be seen?

The thoracic part


What is kyphosis?

An abnormally increased posterior convexity of the thoracic spine.


What does concave mean?

Curves in - think of something caving in


What does convex mean?

Bulging outwards or towards something


What is lordosis?

An abnormal inward curvature (concavity) of the lumbar and cervical regions of the spine


What starts to happen to the shape of the spine with old age?

The secondary curvature start to disappear due to remodelling and a fully continuous primary curvature re-establishes


How many vertebrae make up the vertebral column?



What are the 2 'assembles' (types of vertebrae) that make up the vertebral column?

Discrete single vertebrae and fused vertebrae


What are discrete single vertebrae? how many of them are there?

Verterbrae all capable of individual movement. 25


What are fused vertebrae? how many of them are there?

Vertebrae that fuse together to give 2 innominate structures - sacrum (4-6 vertebrae, 5 is normal) and coccyx (4 vertebrae)


What are the coccyx vertebrae otherwise known as?



What are facet joints formed between?

Between the neural arches (vertebral arches) of adjacent neural arches


What type of joints are facet joints?

Synovial joints


Where is the spinous process of the vertebral arch found?

It is the part that sticks out


What is the vertebral body of the vertebrae?

The main weight bearing part


What is the vertebral arch of a vertebrae? what is it also known as?

The bone bit that sort of makes he shape of a central peace sign. It defines the midline.


What are transverse processes?

The parts of bone that stick out at the sides. They are found laterally to the spinous process and there is one on each side.


What is the pedicle?

The section of the neural arch between the body and the transverse process


What are articular processes?

Bits of bone that stick out and are found inbetween the spinous and transverse processes


What is a special fact about articular processes ?

There are both superior and inferior articular processes. They allow for synovial joints to be formed between neural arches and are strengthened by ligamentum flavum.


What are lamina?

The section of the neural arch between the transverse process and the spinous process


What is an adjacent vertebrae?

A vertebrae which is found on top of another vertebrae


What is a dermatome?

A dermatome is the area of skin supplied by a single spinal nerve


what is a myotome?

Myotome is muscle. It is found in the ventral part of the somite. The muscles that are innervated by a single spinal root are referred to as a myotome.


What is the difference between the anterior longitudinal and the posterior lonigtudinal ligaments?

The anterior is much stronger


What are some facts about the anterior longitudinal ligament?

It is much stronger.
Free over the IVD
Get bigger as they go downwards like vertebral column and IVd


What are some facts about the posterior longitudinal ligament?

In the neural canal
Narrows gradually as it passes downwards
Serrated margins which are broadest over the IVD


What is the mnemonic for remembering the ligaments of the vertebral column?

FINS ligaments


Where is the ligamentum flavum found?

Between facet joints. Joins lamina of adjacent vertebrae. Made up of elastic fibres


Where is the interspinous ligament found?

Unites spinous processes along their adjacent borders
Well developed only in the lumbar region
Weak sheets of fibrous tissue


Where are supraspinous ligaments found?

Joins the tips of adjacents spinous processes
Fibrous tissue


What is the ligament nuchae

Proximal attachment is the back of the skull
Distal attachment is the thoracic spinal ligaments (interspinous and supraspinous)
Intermediate attachmentes- spinous processes
Maintains secondary curvature and helps the cervical spine support the head
Major site of attachment of neck and trunk muscles


What is cervical spondylosis?

A decrease in the size of intervertebral foreamina, usually due to degeneration of the joints and spine
The smaller size of the intervertebral foreamina puts pressure on the exiting nerves, causing pain