Flashcards in MSK S5 - Elbow joint and fractures Deck (56):
What type of joint is the elbow?
Where is the olecrannon fossa found?
On the posterior side of the humerus, just above the trochlea
On which bone is the olecrannon found? Where abouts?
The ular. It is the bit that sticks out at the top. See picture
Which is the bone - the radius or the ulna - that crosses over the other/
The radius crosses over the ulna
One which bone do you find the radial notch?
Which part of the clavicle sticks out?
The bit closest to the sternum
Which part is higher up in the clavicle?
The bit furthest away from the sternum
On which bone do you find the coronoid process?
The ulnar 'meets with' the humerus at two different points, what are these?
The coronoid fossa and the olecrannon fossa
To which fossa does the radius insert into the humerus?
The radial fossa
What are the muscles which produce hinge movement of the elbow?
Biceps brachii, triceps brachii and brachioradialis
What are the properties of the capsule of the elbow?Why is this important?
It is weak anteriorly and posteriorly which allows for flexion and extension
What is the role of the collateral ligaments of the elbow?
The strengthen the joint at the sides
The synovial membrane that is found at the elbow joint lines what?
The fibrous capsule over the elbow and radioulnar joint and the humeus
What are the 3 bands of the ulnar collateral ligament?
The anterior cord like band, the posterior fan like bad and the oblique band
Which out of the 3 bands of the ulnar is the strongest?
What is the role of the oblique band of the ulna collateral ligament?
It deepens the socket for the trochlea
What are the properties of the radial collateral ligament?
It is fanlike and blends with the annular ligament
Around which bone does the annular ligament lie?
What is the role of he annular ligament?
It prevents subluxation of the radius
How does the annular ligament attach to the ulna?
Anterior and posteriorly to its radial notch
What is dislocation?
The complete loss of contact of the joint surfaces
What is subluxation?
Partial dislocation of a joint, so that the bone ends are misaligned but still in contact
What is pulled elbow?
When the head of the radius subluxates from the annular ligament
Who is pulled elbow most common in and why?
Children. Because the annular ligament hasn't adopted its funnel like arrangement and because in children ligaments tend to be much stretchier.
What is the bursa called that is found at the end of the biceps brachii?
Subtendinous olecrannon bursa
When an artery turns back and travels in the opposite direction what is it said to be? Which artery does this in the elbow?
A recurrent branch. The ulnar artery
What is the blood supply of the elbow?
Recurrent branches of the ulnar, radial and interosseous arteries
What are arterial anastomoses?
The reconnection of two arteries which have previously branched out
What is the interosseous membrane?
The joint found between the radius and the ulnar
What are the 3 joints between the radius and the ulnar?
The proximal radioulnar, the interosseuos membrance and the distal radioulnar.
What type of joint is the intersseous membrane?
A fibrous joint
Which is the shorter bone, the radius or the ulnar?
During pronation on what does the head of the radius pivot?
On the capitulum of the humerus
What type of joint is the proximal radioulnar joint?
What is the role of the interosseous membrane?
It allows districution of force from the radius to the ulna
Where is the ulnar notch found?
On the distal end of the radius
What is the role of the articular disk and where is it found?
It separates the cavity of the distal radioulnar joint from the wrist cavity.
What is the sacciform recess and what does it enable?
It is a free space available for use. Extension of the syovial membrane. It allows twisting of the capsule at the distal and proximal radioulnar joints.
Which muscles enable movement of the radioulnar joints?
Supinator, biceps brachii, pronator quadratus and pronator teres
Where are the sacciform recesses found?
On the neck of the radius and at the distal radius and ulna (superiorly form articular disk)
What bones are involved in the formation of the radiocarpal joint?
Radius, Scaphoid, Lunate, Triquetrum
What limits aBduction of the wrist?
The radial styloid process
What is aBduction of the wrist?
The movement of the wrist away from the midline
What are the 3 types of ligaments found in the wrist joint?
Collateral ligaments, palmar radiocarpal and dorsal radiocarpal
What is the role of palmar radiocarpal ligaments?
Ensure the hand follows the radius during supination
What is the role of doral radiocarpal ligaments?
Ensure hand follows radius during pronation
What type of fracture is a colles' fracture?
A distal radius fracture
What happens to the radius in a colles fracture?
There is posterior displacement of the distal fragment of the radius
When does a colles fracture occur?
When someone falls on an outstretched hand
Who is more likely to suffer from a colles fracture?
An elderly person
What is the way of describing a colles fracture?
A bit like a dinner fork
What is the role of the annular ligament?
It keeps the radius in contact with the radial notch of the ulna.
How can fracture to the scaphoid occur?
By falling on an outstretched hand
What effects can a fractured scaphoid have?
Avascular necrosis of the scaphoid bone and tenderness over the anatomical snuffbox