Flashcards in Muscles, bones, joints, and ligaments of the axial skeleton Deck (43)
What is the most common site for degenerative spinal changes in the canine? The inability of a vertebral joint to move caused by osteoarthritis is called ________.
Between L7 and S1; Spondylosis
Name the vertebral formula for canine, feline, equine, and ox.
C7 T13 L7 S3 Cd 20
C7 T13 L6 S5 Cd 20
C7 T18 L6 S5 Cd 20
How many pairs of ribs do that canine, feline, and ox have? What about the equine?
Which part of the ribs articulate with the sternum?
The _______junction is found between the bony and cartilaginous parts of the ribs.
The central portion of each intervertebral disc is called the _______.
What structures form the roof of the vertebral foramen?
Left and right laminae
On the vertebral body, the cranial articular surface is ____________ and the caudal articular surface is ____________.
Where do the spinal nerves and blood vessels pass through in the spine?
Within the intervertebral foramina
The vertebral canal contains which important structure?
What do the left and right pedicles of the vertebra form?
The arch and wall of vertebral foramen
What is an infection of the vertebrae and intervertebral discs called?
The caudal articular processes of the more cranial vertebra articulates with the ______articular processes of the more ______vertebra.
When articulated, which cervical vertebrae structure serves as a canal for the vertebral artery, vein and nerve?
The dens of the axis articulates with what structure?
Fovea dentis of the atlas
When do the ribs start to articulate with the spine and end?
What number rib would articulate with the cranial costal fovea of T8?
Which parts and number of vertebrae would the head of rib 2 articulate with?
The cranial costal fovea of T 2 and the caudal costal fovea of rib T 1
What are the differences between vertebrosternal, vertebrochondral, and vertebral ribs?
Vertebrosternal ribs articulate directly with the sternum (1-9). vertebrochondral ribs form the costal arch before articulating with the sternum (10-12). Vertebral ribs do not articulate with the sternum (13).
What are the spaces between successive ribs called?
How many sternebrae are joined by intervertebral cartilages in the sternum?
What is the ligament that attaches the cranial part of the spine of the axis to the dorsal arch of the atlas called?
Dorsal atlantoaxial ligament
What stabilized the dens of the axis and prevents it from projecting dorsally, potentially into the spinal cord?
Transverse ligament of the atlas
What does alar mean?
Which ligaments hold the dens to the floor of the vertebral canal?
Alar and Apical
What is the annulus fibrosus made of and where is it located?
Collagenous fibers; outer circumference of the intervertebral discs
Where does the supraspinous ligament begin and end? What is this ligament holding together?
Caudal vertebrae to T1; apices of all spinous processes of vertebrae
True or False: The nuchal ligament can be found in the canine and feline.
False: not found in the feline
What ligament assists in supporting the weight of the head and aids in running?
Which ligament extends from the sacrum to the axis?
Ventral longitudinal ligament
The dorsal longitudinal ligament extends from the ________ to the ________.
Ca 1 ; axis
Which two spaces in the spine are used for epidural anesthesia?
lumbosacral space; sacrococcygeal space
The best place in the spine to aspirate cerebrospinal fluid is in the _________ joint.
The intercapital ligaments connect which structures to each other?
Left and right ribs
The dorsal boundary of the cervical visceral space is the _______ while the ventral boundary is the ________
Longus capitis and longus colli; sternothyrohyoideus
Which structures can be found in the cervical visceral space?
Tracheal lymph nodes
Thyroid and parathyroid glands
Which muscles act as inspiratory muscles?
Serratus dorsalis cranialis
Which muscles act as expiratory muscles?
Serratus dorsalis caudalis
Which set us epaxial muscles are located the most laterally? What is the action of these muscles?
Iliocostalis system; the extend the head/neck
The transversospinalis system is epaxial or hypaxial? Which muscles are included in this system?
Semispinalis capitis with biventer cervicis and complexus parts
Where is the longissimus system of epaxial muscles located in relation to the iliocostalis and transversospinalis systems?
Intermediately between the two
Which structures serve as the base for the femoral triangle?
Inguinal ligament; caudal border of the external abdominal oblique m.