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Flashcards in Lab practical 1 Deck (73)
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1

______ is known as the "hooks" in bovine

A. Tuber coxae

B. Iliac crest

C. Tuber sacrale

D. Wing

Tuber coxae

2

What forms the dorsal boundary of the carpal canal?

A. Palmar carpal ligament

B. Palmar flexor retinaculum

C. Palmar extensor retinaculum

D. None of the above

A. Palmar carpal ligament

3

Why is the deltoideus not divided into two parts in the horse?

 

Because the horse lacks an acromion therefore, no acromial and scapular parts of the deltoideus. 

4

What is the glenohumeral joint common name?

Shoulder joint

5

What extends from the greater to the lesser tubercle over the inter tubercular groove of the humerus holding the tendon of the biceps brachii in place?

The transverse humeral retinaculum

6

True/False: In the cat, there is an additional supracondylar foramen near the medial aspect of the condyle through which the brachial artery and median nerve pass

True

7

What is known as the "knee" by horse owners?

Carpus: comprised of 7-8 carpal bones located within two rows, none which are fused. Carpal bone 1 is absent in about 80%-85% of horses.

8

What is the intermediate ridge in horses that divides the intertubercular groove and stabilizes the tendon of the biceps brachii muscle as it passes through the intertubercular groove?

Intermediate tubercle

9

Identify the highlighted structure on the pelvic limb:

Long digital extensor

10

What is commonly called the long pastern bone?

A. Middle phalanx

B. Proximal phalanx

C. Distal phalanx

D. None of the above

B. Proximal phalanx

11

Identify the highlighted structure:

Supinator

12

What would happen with the SDF, DDF and the suspensory ligament were all cut?

The fetlock would hit the ground

13

What are the two main central components of the common calcanean tendon?

1. Biceps femoris

2. Gracilis

3. Semitendinosus
4. Gastrocnemius

5. Superficial digital flexor

The two main central components are composed of the:

Gastrocnemius and the superficial digital flexor

14

What are the components of the stay apparatus? Hint: There are 6 components

  1. Biceps brachii
  2. lacertus fibrosis
  3. interosseous
  4. proximal sesamoid bones
  5. SDF
  6. DDF

15

What forms the palmar boundary of the carpal canal?

Palmar flexor retinaculum

16

Identify the highlighted structure on the pelvic limb:

Long digital exstensor

17

Identify the highlighted structure:

Acromial head of the deltoideus

18

What forms the dorsal border of the jugular groove in the horse?

A. Sternocephalicus

B. Cleidomastoideus

C. Omohyoideus

D. None of the above

B. Cleidomastoideus of the brachiocephalicus

19

What is known as the "hunter's bump" and in what animal is it seen?

Tuber sacrale In the horse

20

What are the components of the reciprocal apparatus?

Fibularis (peroneus) tertius

Fibrous component of the superficial digital flexor and gastrocnemius

21

The region of articulation between the tibia/talus/fibula/calcaneus is commonly known as:

The hock

22

What muscle(s) originate at the ischiatic tuberosity?

A. Sartorius

B. Semitendinosus

C. Semimembranosus

D. Biceps femoris

E. A and D

F. B and C

G. All of the above

F. B and C

The semitendinosus and the semimembranosus both originate at the ischiatic tuberosity

23

What ligament forms the dorsal boundary of the carpal canal?

Palmar carpal ligament

24

In the horse, what is the name of the apparatus that ensures that the stifle and hock joints move in unison for energy conservation?

Reciprocal apparatus

25

Which muscle does not extend the hip and flex the stifle (non-weight bearing)?

A. Semitendinosus 

B. Sartorius

C. Biceps femoris

D. Semimembranosus

E. They all extend the hip and flex the stifle

B. Sartorius

26

What lies beneath the infraspinatus muscle?

Subtendinous synovial bursa

27

Origin, Insertion, Action of Superficial pectoral muscle

Origin: First 3 sternebrae; Median fibrous raphe at the ventral midline

Insertion: Crest of the greater tubercle of the humerus

Action: adduct limb (non-weight bearing); Prevent abduction of limb (weight bearing)

28

True/False: The tendon of the infraspinatus muscle has a subtendinous synovial bursa

True

29

The tendon of which muscle(s) is/are being held down by the crural extensor retinaculum?

A. Cranial tibial

B. Long digital extensor

C. Fibularis longus

D. A and C

E. A and B

F. All of the above 

E. A and B 

The tendons of the cranial tibial and the long digital extensor muscles are held down by the crural extensor retinaculum

30

What is commonly called the fetlock joint in the horse?

A. Metacarpo/metatarso phalangeal joint

B. Proximal interphalangeal joint

C. Middle interphalangeal joint

D. Distal interphalangeal joint

A. Metacarpo/metatarso phalangeal joint

31

Which muscle forms the cranial border of the femoral triangle?

A. Gracilis

B. Pectineus

C. Sartorius

D. Adductor

C. Sartorius

32

What would happen if the DDF were severed in the horse?

 

The toe would come up off the ground and hyper extend

33

True/False: The cranial tibial muscle flexes tarsus and rotates the paw medially so plantar surface faces laterally

False: The cranial tibial muscle flexes the tarsus and rotates the paw laterally so plantar surface faces medially

34

What muscles makes up the carpal canal? Hint: There are 3 muscles

Flexor carpi radialis

Deep digital flexor

Superficial digital flexor

35

True/False: The ventral elastic ligament maintains hyperextension of the distal phalanx and claw in cats?

False: The dorsal elastic ligament maintains hyperextension of the distal phalanx and claw in cats

36

Identify the highlighted structure:

 

Longissimus cervicis

37

______ is known as the "pins" in bovine

A. Ischiadic spine

B. Tuber ischii

C. Ischiatic table

D. Ischiatic tuberosity

B. Tuber ischii

38

What are the components of the suspensory apparatus in horses?

Interosseus

Proximal sesamoid bones

Superficial digital flexor

Deep digital flexor

39

Where does the gemelli originate?

A. Lateral ischium

B. Ventral pelvis

C. Ilium cranial to the acetabulum

D. Isciatic tuberosity

A. Lateral ischium

40

Which 5 muscles contribute to the common calcanean tendon?

Biceps femoris Semitendinosus Gracilis Gastrocnemius Superficial digital flexor

41

Which muscle does not flex the hip?

A. Quadratus femoris

B. Quadriceps femoris

C. Sartorius

D. Iliopsoas

E. None of the above

F. A and C

A. Quadratus femoris

42

What joints make up the "knee" in the horse?

Radiocarpal joint Mid carpal Joint Carpometacarpal joint

43

Identify the highlighted structure:

Iliocostalis

44

Correctly label with bovine, equine, and canine:

45

In the horse, which check ligaments are associated with the SDF and DDF respectively?

SDF - proximal check ligament DDF - Distal check ligament

46

What do these muscles have in common? Briefly describe their commonality: gracilis, pectineus and the adductor

A. The point of origin

B. The point of insertion

C. The action

D. Nothing

C. The action

They all adduct the limb

Gracilis - also flexes the stifle; extends hip and hock

Pectineus - only adducts limb

Adductor - also extends the hip

47

Where does the semimembranosus originate?

A. Caudoventral ischium

B. Wing of the ilium

C. Ischiatic tiberosity

D. Pelvic side of pubis and ischium

C. Ischiatic tuberosity

48

What is commonly known as the pastern joint?

A. Metacarpo/metatarso phalangeal joint

B. Proximal interphalangeal joint

C. Middle interphalangeal joint

D. Distal interphalangeal joint

B. Proximal interphalangeal joint

49

Identify the highlighted structure:

Pronator teres

50

Which muscle forms the caudal border of the femoral triangle?

A. Sartorius

B. Gracilis

C. Iliopsoas

D. Pectineus

D. Pectineus

51

Which 3 muscles extend the hip and abduct the limb?

Superficial, middle, and deep gluteal muscles

52

What is the name of the long tendon of the biceps brachii that is a component of the passive stay apparatus of the forelimb in the horse?

Lacertus fibrosus

53

What forms the caudal boarder of the jugular groove in the horse?

A. Omohyoideus

B. Sternocephalicus

C. Cleidomastoideus

D. Brachiocephalicus

A. Omohyoideus

54

What is the action of the vastus medialis?

A. Flexion of digits

B. Adduction of limb and extension of hip

C. Extension of stifle

C. Extension of stifle

55

Where does the gracilis and the adductor originate from?

The pelvic symphysis via the symphysial tendon

56

The shiny fibrocartilage covering the plantar surface of the proximal sesamoid bones is known as the:

Scutum

57

What muscle does not insert at the trochanteric fossa of the femur?

A. Internal obturator

B. Gemelli

C. Quadratus femoris

D. External obturator

E. None of the above

C. Quadratus femoris - it inserts at the intertrochanteric creist of the femur

58

What tricep head do large animals lack?

A. Long head

B. Lateral head

C. Accessory head

D. Medial head

C. Accessory head

59

What is commonly known as the coffin joint?

A. Metacarpo/metatarso phalangeal joint

B. Proximal interphalangeal joint

C. Middle interphalangeal joint

D. Distal interphalangeal joint

D. Distal interphalangeal joint

60

What is referred to as the buttons in bovine?

medial and lateral splint bones

61

What is the interosseous called in the horse?

Suspensory ligament - and it is entirely tendinous

62

In horses, metacarpal III is often called the:

A. Long pastern bones

B. Short pastern bones

C. Cannon bones

D. Coffin

C. Cannon bones

63

What is the sleeve called that the superficial digital flexor forms so that the deep digital flexor can pass through?

Flexor manica

64

What is the humeroradioulnar joint common name?

Elbow or cubital joint

65

In horses, which bone is most affected by compressive forces?

A. Lateral splint bone

B. Medial splint bone

C. Cannon bone

B. Medial splint bone Because carpal bone II rests entirely on the medial splint bone

66

What is the OIA of the highlighted structure?

Lateral head

of the triceps brachii

Origin: Tricipital line, proximal humerus

Insertion: Olecranon of ulna

Action: Extend the elbow

67

What is also known as the navicular bone?

A. Proximal sesamoid bone

B. Distal sesamoid bone

 

B. Distal sesamoid bone

68

What forms the palmar boundary of the carpal canal?

A. Palmar carpal ligament 

B. Palmar flexor retinaculum

C. Palmar extensor retinaculum

D. None of the above

A. Palmar flexor retinaculum

69

Which muscles have a common insertion and what is it?

A. Superficial and middle gluteal muscles

B. Middle and deep gluteal muscles

C. Superficial and deep gluteal muscles

B. Middle and deep gluteal muscles

They insert at the greater trochanter of the femur

Bonus fact: Middle gluteal muscle originates from the crest and gluteal surface of the ilium Deep gluteal muscle originates from the body of the ilium and the ischiatic spine

70

What bone makes up the lateral boarder of the carpal canal?

Accessory carpal bone

71

What forms the ventral borderof the jugular groove?

A. Brachiocephalicus

B. Omohyoideus

C. Sternocephalicus

D. Cleidomastoideus

C. Sternocephalicus

72

What is the foramen in which the brachial artery and the median nerve pass through in cats?

Supracondylar foramen in the humerus

73

What are the three annular ligaments that hold down the tendons of the SDF and the DDF?

Palmar annular ligament Proximal digital annular ligament Distal digital annular ligament