In which species does the azygous vein persist on the right side of the heart? What about the left?
Ruminants/Swine (sometimes bilateral)
Which part of the heart is characterized by the apex and has thicker walls?
Which part of the heart pumps deoxygenated blood into the pulmonary trunk?
Which part of the heart pumps oxygenated blood into aorta?
Which part of the heart is next to the conus arteriosus of the right ventricle? What does it contain?
Paraconal interventricular groove; great cardiac vein and left coronary artery
What is located below the coronary sinus of the heart on the atrial surface of the heart? What does it contain?
Subsinuosal interventricular groove; Left coronary artery
Which nerves branch from the cervical spinal nerve II?
Great Auricular nerve
Transverse cervical nerve
Which branches of the spinal nerves (dorsal or ventral) innervate the epaxial musculature?
The ventral branches of the spinal nerves innervate the ________ musculature.
Which nerve innervates the trapezius m.?
Cranial nerve XI/ Accessory Nerve
Which ventral nerve branches innervate the abdominal wall?
What are the names of the L1-L4 ventral nerve branches?
L1: Cranial iliohypogastric n.
L2: Caudal iliohypogastric n.
L3: Ilioinguinal n.
L4: Lateral cutaneous femoral n.
What extends laterally from the prepubic tendon, preventing a horse from side kicking? How?
The accessory ligament of the femoral head; limits movement of the coxofemoral joint.
What is the space called that is continuous with the cervical visceral space and between the left and right pleural cavities?
What is the junction called between the costal pleura and the diaphragmatic pleura?
Diaphragmatic line of pleural reflection
What do the left and right crural tendons attach to?
The muscular crura of the diaphragm to the lumbar vertebral bodies
What does the plica venae cavae envelop and which side of the body is it located?
caudal vena cava and right phrenic nerve; right
What structures are located within the carotid sheath?
Common carotid artery
Internal jugular veins
What lies within the central tendon of the diaphragm to the right of the median plane and transmits the caudal vena cava?
What are the two main areas of herniation in the canine?
Lumbocostal arch of the diaphragm
Lumbodiaphragmatic recess of the diaphragm
What is the area called that is between the diaphragmatic crura and vertebra and allows passage of the major splanchnic nerve?
From which nerves do the right and left phrenic nerves originate in the canine? What about the feline? Are these nerves somatic or autonomic?
Ventral branches of spinal nerves C4, C5, C6, C7
Ventral branches of spinal nerves C4,C5,C6
Which arteries supply the diaphragm?
Musculophrenic artery (branch off the internal thoracic artery) Caudal phrenic artery
What is the “glue”called that attaches the pleura to the thoracic walls?
What pocket/recess is located at the thoracic inlet and is susceptible to puncture wounds with collapse of the right lung in large animals?
Within which recess is the accessory lobe of the lung located?
What are the two recess called that are located between where the costal pleura reflects to the ventral thoracic wall and the diaphragm?
What supplies somatic innervation to the larynx? Describe the pathway of the right and left nerves.
Left and Right recurrent laryngeal nerves.
The left curves around the ligamentum arteriosum/aortic arch.
The right curves around the right subclavian artery. Both originate from the vagus nerve.
Which lymphatic structures are located within the mediastinum?
Sternal Lymph nodes
Mediastinal Lymph nodes
Tracheobronchial Lymph nodes
The trachea and bronchial tree are part of the ______portion of the respiratory system.
What respiratory structures are part of the exchange portion?
Which species has only a cranial and caudal lobe of the left lung?
If a certain animals has no middle lobe in the right lung, it is most likely a _____.
Which type of animal has a divided cranial lobe in the left and right lung?
The three unpaired arteries of the gastrointestinal organs and spleen are the __________,________, and _________.
The celiac artery, the cranial mesenteric artery, and the caudal mesenteric artery
What are the names of the paired vessels in the abdomen?
- Lumbar arteries
- Phrenicoabdominal a. and v. with caudal phrenic and cranial abdominal a. and v.
- Renal a. and v.
- Ovarian a. and v.
- Testicular a. and v.
- Deep circumflex iliac a. and v.
What does the hepatic artery supply?
The liver, parts of stomach, duodenum and pancreas
What does the splenic artery branch off into?= and what does it supply?
Left gastroepiploic artery; spleen and left lobe of pancreas
Where does the left gastric artery come from and where does it go?
The celiac artery and continues along the lesser curvature of the stomach anastomosing with the right gastric artery.
Where does the right gastric artery come from and where does it go?
The hepatic artery and goes along the lesser curvature of the stomach anastomosing with the left gastric artery.
Which artery does the right gastroepiploic artery and cranial pancreaticoduodenal artery come from?
The gastroduodenal artery which branched off the hepatic artery.
Which artery supplies the right lobe of the pancreas and the duodenum?
Cranial pancreaticoduodenal artery
What organs (specifically what part) are supplied by the right gastroepiploic artery?
The greater omentum and greater curvature of the stomach
Which artery can be used to approximate the length of the ileum in the dog? What species does not have this artery?
Antimesenteric ileal artery ; Horse
What is considered the largest gland of the body?
Where is the gallbladder located?
In between the right medial lobe and the quadrate lobes of the liver
What is the name of the structure that transmits hepatic vessels, nerves, lymphatics, and the bile duct to/from the liver?
The porta of the liver
Where is the round ligament of the liver located?
Quadrate lobe and left medial lobe of liver (only in younger dogs)
What does volvulus refer to?
Gastric dilation: excessive dilation of stomach paired with twisting of stomach around it’s longitudinal axis.
Where would you want to make an incision in stomach in order to gain access to it? Why?
Parietal surface of stomach because it is avascular.
What does the root of the mesentery contain and where does it attach?
Cranial mesenteric artery and jejunal lymph nodes;
Abdominal wall next to second lumbar vertebra
What is the duodenocolic fold attached to?
Portion of mesentery attached from ascending duodenum to descending colon
Is the spleen located in the superficial or deep leaf of the greater omentum?
What are the two common types of tumors found on the spleen?
Hemangiosarcomas and Hematomas
Where does the bile duct open at?
The major duodenal papilla
True or False: The kidney are not retroperitoneal.
Which artery supplies the caudodorsal quadrant of the abdomen?
Deep Circumflex iliac a.
Which part of the abdomen is supplied by the caudal epigastric and superficial caudal epigastric arteries?
Caudo Ventral quadrant
Which artery supplies the cranial dorsal quadrant of the abdomen?
Which part of the abdomen is supplied by the cranial epigastric and cranial superficial epigastric arteries?
Cranial Ventral quadrant
What are the three branches of the internal thoracic artery?
- Ventral Intercostal aa.
- Musculophrenic a.
- Cranial epigastric a.
Which cranial nerves have autonomic components?
Cranial nerves III, VII, IX, and X
Nuclei are considered ______matter, while tracts are considered _______matter.
A dendrite is the _______ portion of the neuron whereas the axon is the _______ portion.
Where is the trabecula septomarginalis dextra located?
The right ventricle of heart
Which preganglionic sympathetic neuron fibers are entering the caudal mesenteric ganglion and which are leaving it?
The lumbar splanchnic nerves; the hypogastric nerves towards pelvic plexus
What kind of ganglionic bodies can be found in the celiacomesenteric ganglion?
Postganglionic sympathetic cell bodies
What are the different types of neuron fibers found in the celiacomesenteric plexus?
Postganglionic sympathetic from the celiac and cranial mesenteric ganglia;
Preganglionic sympathetic form major/minor splanchnic nerves;
Preganglionic parasympathetic fibers from celiac branch of dorsal vagal nerve trunk
Where do the preganglionic parasympathetic fibers that innervate the liver, stomach, and pancreas come from?
The ventral vagal trunk (unity of ventral vagus branches)
The dorsal vagal trunk is formed from the unity of what nerves? Where is it? What does it innervate?
Right and left dorsal vagal branches cranial to diaphragm; innervates the dorsal surface of stomach and intestines to the left colic flexure…also branches off as the celiac branch.
Going from cranial to caudal on the hepatic portal vein, name the branches or tributaries coming off.
Caudal mesenteric v.
Cranial mesenteric v.
Which artery does the left gastric artery branch off of and what does it supply and anastomose with?
Celiac a. ; lesser curvature of stomach; right gastric a.
The splenic artery give off a branch that supplies the greater curvature of the stomach. Which branch is this and what does it anastomose with?
Left gastroepiploic a. ; Right gastroepiploic a.
Which artery branches to give off the right gastroepiploic a. ?
The gastroduodenal a. from the hepatic a.
What artery supplies the the right lobe of the pancreas as well as the duodenum? Where does this artery originally branch off of?
The cranial pancreaticoduodenal a. ; gastroduodenal a.
What is considered the axis of the root of the mesentery?
The cranial mesenteric a.
What artery supplies the transverse colon, descending colon, and left colic flexure? Which artery does it branch from?
The middle colic a. ; cranial mesenteric a.
What does the right colic a. supply?
The transverse colon and aboral part of the ascending colon
What artery continues after the common trunk of the cranial mesenteric artery and branches into the colic and cecal branches?
Where do the ileal aa. come from and what do they supply and what do they anastomose with?
Last 2-3 branches of cranial mesenteric a. that supply the ileum and merge with the mesenteric ileal a.
What branch of the cranial mesenteric a. supplies the right lobe of pancreas and the descending duodenum?
Caudal pancreaticoduodenal a.
The caudal pancreaticoduodenal a. branches off of the ________a. and the cranial pancreaticoduodenal a. branches off of the ___________ a. of the hepatic a.
Cranial mesenteric a. ; gastroduodenal a.
After the ileocolic a. of the cranial mesenteric a. gives off the cecal branch, what does it continue as and what does it anastomose with?
Mesenteric ileal a. ; Jejunal aa.
What branch from the ileocolic a. terminates as the antimesenteric ileal a. Why is the antimesenteric ileal a. important?
Cecal br. ; determine length of ileum
Which artery branching off of the aorta includes the left colic a. and the cranial rectal a.?
Caudal mesenteric a.
What does the left colic a. supply? What does it anastomose with?
The descending colon; middle colic a.
Which artery and vein pass over the adrenal gland and branches off into the caudal phrenic and cranial abdominal a. and v. ?
Phrenicoabdominal a. and v.
What a. and v. drain into the renal vein on male and female?
ovarian and testicular a. and v. (ON LEFT)
What nerve leaves the left vagus nerve at the level of the middle cervical ganglion and wraps around the ligamentum arteriosum and aortic arch?
The left recurrent laryngeal nerve
Where does the right recurrent laryngeal nerves come from and what does it wrap around?
The right vagus nerves and wraps around the right subclavian a.
What structure contains both somatic and autonomic neuron fibers?
The vagosympathetic nerve trunk
Where are afferent neuron cell bodies (somatic and visceral) located?
Dorsal root ganglia
The lateral horn (grey matter) in the thoracic and lumbar regions of the spinal cord contain what?
Visceral efferent neuron cell bodies=sympathetic nervous system pre synaptic neuron cell bodies
Where are parasympathetic nervous system pre synaptic neuron cell bodies located?
Ventral horn of the sacral region of spinal cord
What artery does the caudal epigastric, external pudendal, and deep femoral artery branch off of?
The external iliac artery
Name the three central ventral dorsal regions of the abdomen starting from the caudal end to the cranial end.
Name the three R/L lateral ventral dorsal regions of the abdomen starting from the cranial end to the caudal end.
Which specific part of the rumen can be accessed via the paralumbar fossa?
Dorsal sac on left side
What specific part of the cecum in the horse can be accessed via the paralumbar fossa?
Base on right side
What are the names of the arteries that supply the paralumbar fossa? (two)
- Lumbar aa.
2. cranial branch of the deep circumflex iliac a.
In the large animal, what is different about the nerves that supply the abdominal wall (in relation to carnivore)?
There is no cranial and caudal iliohypogastric nerve, instead there is one iliohypogastric nerves representing L1. The ilioinguinal nerve represents L2 and L3 where in dog is represents only 3. The lateral cutaneous femoral n. represents L3/4, not just L4 like in the dog.
In which muscle is the caudal epigastric and caudal superficial epigastric arteries located?
THe deep rectus abdominis m.
What arteries branch off of the pudendoepigastric trunk?
The caudal epigastric a, the external pudendal a. and the superficial caudal epigastric a that branched off the external pudendal a.
What structure can cause interference of vagal control of gastric function due to compression of the dorsal vagal nerve trunk and cause eructation?
The caudal mediastinal lymph node: it will obstruct when it increases in size and put nerves against the esophagus .
The right lip of the reticular groove descends _______ while the left lip descends ________ as they enter the reticulo-omasal orifice.
Where is the spleen located on the rumen?
The left hypochondriac region; craniodorsal aspect of atrium ruminis
What is the function of the rumen?
Fermentation: Digest complex carbohydrates and produce volatile fatty acids which are absorbed
What structure separates the reticulum from the atrium ruminis?
What two pillars form the insula ruminis?
The right accessory and longitudinal pillars
What is considered the boundary between the dorsal and ventral ruminal sacs and is bounded by the R/L longitudinal pillars as well as the cranial and caudal pillars?
The caudodorsal and caudoventral blinds sacs of the rumen are separated by what structures?
The left and right coronary pillars
What type of epithelium is the rumen, reticulum and omasum lined by? Why is this significant?
Keratinized stratified squamous epithelium; better at protecting, not absorbing, but can absorb VFA, water. lactic acid and electrolytes.
The ruminal arteries branch off of the ________ artery The left passes through the _______groove into the left accessory groove, while the right passes through the _______ groove and passes _________ groove.
Splenic a.; caudal; cranial; accessory
What nerve innervates the rumen, reticulum, and the omasum? What about the abomasum?
The dorsal vagal trunk; the ventral vagal trunk
What are the muscle fibers called in the reticulum that close the top of the reticular cells allowing course material to be held in the cells?
Lamina muscularis mucosae
What structure covers the omasum?
Is the omasum larger or smaller than the reticulum in a small ruminant?
Biphasic contractions occur in the omasum. Describe what is happening in phase I and II.
I: Omasal canal contracts/relaxes bringing ingesta from reticulum into interlaminar recesses.
II: Omasum contracts and discharges solids into abomasum.
Where is the torus pyloricus located?
In the abomasum of the ruminant. Specifically, in the internal aspect of pylorus on the side where the lesser curvature meets the pyloric sphincter.
If you were to cut into the right paralumbar fossa of a cow, what would you come into contact with in order of most lateral to most medial.
The descending duodenum with the mesoduodenum dorsal and the superficial leaf of the greater omentum ventral. Cutting through the superficial leaf, you would expose the omental bursa and the deep leaf. Cutting into the deep leaf, you would expose the intestines within the supraomental recess.
On the rumen, where does the deep leaf and superficial leave attach?
Deep=right longitudinal groove; Superficial=left longitudinal groove
Name the sequence of the duodenum in the ruminant from oral to aboral.
cranial part–cranial flexure-descending duodenum-caudal duodenal flexure-ascending duodenum-duodenojejunal flexure-jejunum
What organ does the cranial and caudal pancreaticoduodenal arteries supply?
The pancreas and the duodenum
Which plexus, containing autonomic nerve fibers, innervates the small intestines?
What lies inside the supraomental recess in the ruminant?
Where are the jejunal lymph nodes in the large ruminant in comparison to the small? Why is this important to remember?
In the large ruminant, the lymph nodes are next to the jejunum. In the small, the centrifugal gyrus of the ascending colon lies next to the jejunum. During meat inspection, you may need a sample of lymphatic tissues. Be careful to not take a fecal sample instead in the small ruminant.
What supplies blood to the ascending colon in ruminant (centripetal and centrifugal part)?
Centripetal gyri: Colic branch of the ileocolic a. from the cranial mesenteric artery
Centrifugal gyri: right colic a. from the ileocolic a.
Where does the transverse colon pass in relation to the root of the mesentery? What supplies the transverse colon?
Cranial; Middle colic a.
Is the descending colon on the right or left of the root of the mesentery and what is it supplied by?
Left; left colic a. from the caudal mesenteric a.
Are horses gut or stomach fermenters? What about ruminants?
In which region is the stomach located in the horse?
Left hypochondriac region
The non-glandular part of the horse stomach is lined with ________ epithelium, while the glandular part is lined with _________ epithelium.
What structure empties into the minor duodenal papilla in the descending duodenum?
The accessory pancreatic duct
What do the common bile duct and pancreatic duct empty into?
The major duodenal papilla in the descending duodenum
T/F Horses have a gallbladder.
What are the two structures in the horse that are most commonly entrapped in the epiploic foramen?
The jejunum and ileum
Why is the ileocecal fold significant in the horse?
It is used to determine the length of the ileum due the there being no antimesenteric ileal branch
Name all the folds found in the small and large intestines of the horse.
Duodenocolic fold: ascending duodenum and descending colon
Starting from the rectum and traveling orally to the cecum, name the number of bands found in each part of the large colon.
Rectum: 0 Descending Colon (small colon): 2 Transverse Colon: 2 Right Dorsal Colon: 3 Left Dorsal Colon: 1 Left Ventral Colon: 4 Right Ventral Colon: 4
What is located in between the right and left ventral colon?
The ventral diaphragmatic flexure (sternal flexure)
Where is the pelvic flexure located?
In between the left ventral and left dorsal colon
What is located in between the left dorsal colon and the right dorsal colon?
Dorsal diaphragmatic flexure
What is the communication called in between the cecum and the ascending colon?
Which region of the cecum in the horse is not mobile due to its attachment to the dorsal body wall?
How is the body of the cecum held in place?
Cecocoli fold on the right abdominal wall
What lies in between the right and left ventral colon and is easily displace?
Apex of cecum
What supplies the cecum in the horse with blood?
Ileocolic artery with lateral cecal and medial cecal branches
The mesocolon attaches which pairs of the ascending colon together?
THe right dorsal colon and right ventral colon
The left dorsal colon and left ventral colon
Why is is easy for impactions to occur in the left dorsal colon of the horse?
The dorsal colon is smaller than the ventral colon and creates a bottleneck effect in pelvic flexure
On which side of the horse are the majority of the mesenteries of the large intestine located?
On the right side making the left ascending colon more easily displaced due to less attachments
What is a common site of entrapment of the left large colon near the left kidney and spleen called?
The colic branch of the ileocolic artery supplies the proximal part of the __________ colon, while the right colic artery supplies the distal part of the _________ colon in the horse.
ascending (ventral); ascending (dorsal)
What is a possible cause of impaction in the right dorsal colon of the horse?
The highly constricted and smaller transverse colon
On which side of the horse can the small colon be accessed?
Left paralumbar fossa
What are the three anchors that keep the large colon in place?
- Duodenocolic fold
- Cecocolic fold
- Ligament holding base of cecum to dorsal body wall
What artery supplies the first three dorsal intercostal spaces?
It was species can the bicarotid trunk be found?? What does it branch off of?
Horse, Ox and Pig
Where does the left subclavian artery branch from in the dog? What about in the horse and ox?
How many cervical, thoracic, lumbar, and sacral spinal nerves are in the dog?
8/13/7/3 with a total of 31
Where do the first pair of cervical spinal nerves emerge from?
The lateral vertebral foramina of the atlas
Spinal nerves that emerge caudal to their corresponding vertebrae are __________ vertebrae, while ones that emerge crancial are ________vertebrae.
thoracic and lumbar; cervical
What structures go through the transverse foramina of the atlas?
Vertebral artery and veins
Sympathetic nerve plexus
Which part of the colon in the horse is the haustra more prominent?
the ventral colon
If you are doing auscultations on a horse, where would you want to place the stethoscope in order to listen to the small intestine or small colon?
The left paralumbar fosssa