Flashcards in Pelvic Limb (Canine, Feline, Equine, Ox) Deck (65)
What are the components of the reciprocal apparatus in equine? Where are they located?
1. Peroneus tertius (cranial aspect of metatarsal III)
2. Superficial digital flexor (caudal aspect of metatarsal (III)
3. Gastrocnemius (caudal aspect of metatarsal III)
What are the components of the Suspensory Apparatus or Passive Stay Apparatus?
1. Interosseus (suspensory ligament)
2. Extensor branches of interosseus
3. Proximal sesamoid bones
4. Sesamoidean ligaments (straight, oblique, cruciate)
5. Superficial digital Flexor with flexor manica
6. Deep digital Flexor
The _________ is located between the DDF and navicular bone in the equine?
What two joints in the equine move in unison (flex or extend) as part of the reciprocal apparatus?
Stifle and hock (tibiotarsal or tarsocrural joint)
Which joint in the equine pelvic limb has the most movement and the largest synovial cavity?
Tibiotarsal or tarsocrural joint
Which joint may connect with the tarsometatarsal joint in the equine?
Distal intertarsal joint
The proximal intertarsal joint in the equine is continuous with the __________ joint.
Which two synovial spaces are interconnected in the equine stifle joint? Why is this important to consider?
The femoropatellar and medial femorotibial spaces; infection and injections will spread between the two
The lateral femorotibial synovial space is connected to the medial femorotibial space in the equine. T or F?
False: it is separate from all spaces
What are the trochanter on the femur of the equine called and which muscles attach to them?
Greater trochanter (cranial and caudal parts)- Middle and Deep gluteal
Lesser trochanter- Iliopsoas m.
Third trochanter-Superficial gluteal
Which three muscles insert on the trochanteric fossa of the femur?
The gemelli, quadratus femoris, external obturator, and internal obturator muscles do what to the pelvic limb?
Rotate it laterally
Which muscle rotates the pelvic limb medially?
Middle Gluteal m.
Whirlbone/whirlbone is caused by the inflammation of what in the equine? What can this result in?
Trochanteric bursa; Lameness
Where is the trochanteric bursa located on the equine?
Between the tendon of the middle gluteal m. and cranial part of greater trochanter
Which ligament in the equine prevents it from kicking to the side? What is this ligament deep to?
Accessory ligament of the femoral head; transverse acetabular ligament
Which tendon gives rise to the accessory ligament of the femoral head in the equine?
The prepubic tendon
Which trochanter of the femur is absent in ruminants?
The ______________ is on the tibia of horse, but on the fibula of ruminants and carnivores.
The ___________ passes over the sustentaculum tali bone and its tendon meets with the ________ on the proximal caudal aspect of the metatarsal III bone.
lateral DDF m; medial DDF tendon
What is the suspensory apparatus preventing in the equine?
Hyperextension of the fetlock joint
Which part of the femur in the equine serves as the locking part of the patellar locking mechanism?
Medial trochlear ridge
Which muscls is most commonly used in the equine for an intramuscular injection?
What is located between the superficial digital flexor tendon and point of the hock?
Subtendinous calcaneal bursa
Which muscle is responsible for flexing the stifle extending the tarsus, and flexing the digits? What about just extending the tarsus and flexing the digits?
Superficial digital flexor
Deep digital flexor
The popliteus muscle has a tendon that originates from the _________ and contains a __________. What does this muscle do?
lateral condyle of femur; popliteal sesamoid bone; flex stifle
Which muscles originate from the lateral supracondylar tuberosity of the femur?
Lateral head of the gastrocnemius
Superficial digital flexor
What muscle attachments counteract flexion of the hock in the equine that is not found in the thoracic limb?
Medial and lateral attachments of SDF to the calcaneus
Why is the cunean tendon clinically important? (two reasons) What muscles does this tendon originate from?
Palpable reference point of distal intertarsal joint;
Can be cut to alleviate on arthritis of distal hock joints;
Cranial Tibial m.
Which tarsal bones are fused in the equine?
Tarsal I and Tarsal II
Which tarsal bones are fused in the Ox?
Tarsa II and Tarsal III/ Central Tarsal and IV Tarsal (centroguartale tarsal bone)
What lies underneath the cranial tibial muscles in the equine?
What tendon inserts on Tarsal bones I and II of the quine?
Where do the separate branches of the peroneus tertius m. insert?
Lateral branch: calcaneus and tarsal IV
Dorsal branch: Tarsal III and Metatarsal III
How does the SDF "cap" the hock in the equine?
It starts underneath the gastrocnemius twists around the medial surface of the gastrocnemius tendon toward the calcaneal tuber.
Which muscles contribute to the calcanean tendon?
3. Gracilis via crural fascia
4. Biceps femoris
The tuber ischia in the ox contributes to it's _______ butt. The layman's term for this is called the ______.
What will happen if the peroneus tertius is ruptured?
Flexed stifle and extended hock
What causes "Curb" in horses?
Desmitis of the long plantar ligament
What ligament is covered by the SDF in the equine and attaches on the proximal part of metatarsus III?
Long plantar ligament
OCD of the Distal intermediate ridge of the Tibia is referred to as what?
What occurs if the Quadriceps femoris and Biceps femoris muscles in the equine are not strong enough to unlock the patellar ligament?
The stifle will remain extended
What are the lateral, ventral, and dorsal boundaries of the pelvic inlet?
Lateral: arcuate line of the ilium
Ventral: pecten of the pubis
Dorsal: promontory of the sacrum
What are the lateral, ventral, and dorsal boundaries of the pelvic outlet?
Lateral: sacrotuberous ligament/superficial gluteal
Ventral: ischiatic arch
Dorsal: first caudal vertebrae
The crural extensor retinaculum holds down the ________ and the __________.
cranial tibial tendon of insertion; long digital extensor tendon
What muscle originates at the extensor fossa of the femur and travels down the extensor groove of the tibia?
long digital extensor m.
The fibularis longus (peroneus longus) does what to the tarsus and paw?
Flexes the tarsus and rotates the paw medially
Which muscle is present in the feline, human, and equine, but not in the canine? It includes the triceps surae muscle.
What are the borders of the femoral triangle?
Cranial: caudal part of sartorius m.
Base:abdominal wall and inguinal ligament
What is the opening in the abdominal wall called that allows for passage of the femoral vessels and nerves between the pelvic limb and the abdomen?
What kind of joint is the hip joint and what is it's anatomical name?
Ball and socket(spheroidal); coxofemoral
TPO, FHO, and Total Hip are all ways to treat what disease?
What is attached to the intercondylar fossa of the femur in the canine?
When the cranial cruciate ligament tears in canine, what occurs?
Forward movement of the tibia
Which minisci has movement with the bones and which is usually damaged when the cranial cruciate ligament tears?
The patella is held in the the trochlea by what structures?
Femoral fascia; Medial/lateral femoropatellar ligaments
If the hock in the canine drops slightly and the toe curls under, what has happened?
Rupture of the gastrocnemius tendon
If the calcanean tendon completely ruptures, what will we see?
Flat footed animal with a fully dropped hock
This structure curves over the proximal aspect of the trochlear tubercle when the patella is on the resting surface in the equine. What is it called?
Why does the ox have a harder time with parturition?
The ischium of the ossa coxarum slants dorsally and the initial part of the pelvic canal is narrowed
What is considered the gliding surface for the patella in the equine?
The groove located between the medial and lateral ridge of the trochlea of the femur
What is the purpose of the proximal aspect of the trochlear tubercle of the femur in the equine?
It serves as the resting surface for the patella during the patellar locking mechanism
In the equine, the long digital extensor tendon and fibularis tertius pass through the extensor groove. What What about in the canine?
Only the long digital extensor passes through this groove
Which two muscles make up the gluteobiceps muscle, eliminating the need for a third trochanter in the ox?
Biceps femoris m. and superficial gluteal m.