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Flashcards in Musculoskeletal Imaging 2 Deck (68)
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1

What is the major disease of the immature skeleton?

Osteochondrosis (OC) / Osteochondritis dissecans (OCD)

2

Describe OC/ OCD?

Results from focal area of dysfunction of endochondral ossification
- Occurs in the epiphyseal cartilage complex and growth plate
- Articular cartilage becomes thickened because it doesn't mineralise
- On radiograph, appears as a SC bone defect

3

What animals tend to be affected by OC?

- Humans
- Dogs
- Pigs
- Horses
- Cattle
- Chickens
- Turkeys

4

What are the clinical signs of OC?

- Lameness
- Pain
- Crepitus
- Swelling

5

Where does the dog tend to get OC?

On articular surfaces
- Shoulder
- Elbow
- Stifle
- Tarsus
- Vertebral articular facets

6

Describe OC signalment in the shoulder of a dog...

Sex: M: F is 2.25
Age: 4-8 months
Breed: Large & Giant Breeds

7

Describe OC clinical signs in the shoulder of a dog...

- Most common form of OC
- Weight bearing lameness in brought on by exercise
- Shortened forelimb stride
- Pain on extension/ flexion of the shoulder
- Bilateral disease ~ 50% of the time
- Bilateral lameness~21% of the time

8

Describe OC radiographic findings in the shoulder of a dog...

- Lateral view is most helpful
- Defect or flattening of the caudal humeral head
- SC bone sclerosis
- Mineralised flap
- Secondary Osteoarthritis/ DJD

9

Describe OC signalment in the elbow of a dog...

Sex: M more than F
Breed: Large breeds, commonly retrievers

10

Describe OC clinical signs in the elbow of a dog...

- Second most common
- Weight bearing lameness is exacerbated by exercise
- Pain on flexion/ extension of elbow
- Often bilateral

11

Describe OC radiographic findings in the elbow of a dog...

- Cranial- Caudal and Oblique views
- SC defect of medial humeral condyle
- SC sclerosis
- Rarely see joint mouse
- Secondary OA/ DJD of the medial epicondyle

12

Describe OC signalment in the stifle of a dog...

Sex: M more than F
Age: 5-7 months at onset
Breed: Great Dane, Labs, Newfoundland, German Shepherd

13

Describe OC clinical signs in the stifle of a dog...

- Least common of OC lesions
- Subtle hind leg lameness exacerbated by exercise
- Stifle joint pain
- Swelling and reduced range of motion
- Often bilateral

14

Describe OC radiographic findings in the stifle of a dog...

- Best seen on Cranial- Caudal view
- Radiolucent SC bone defect
- SC bone sclerosis
- Secondary DJD

15

Describe OC signalment in the tarsus of a dog...

Sex: M and F equal
Age: 6-12 months of age at diagnosis
Breed: Rottweilers and Labs in >70% of cases

16

Describe OC clinical signs in the tarsus of a dog...

- Third most common OC lesion
- Progressive lameness over several months
- Intermittent non-weight- bearing lameness OR... persistent weight bearing lameness exacerbated by exercise
- Joint swelling
- Bilateral 40%

17

Describe OC radiographic findings in the tarsus of a dog...

- Medial trochlear ridge is most common
- Best seen on DIP or flexed DIP
- Widening of the joint space medially
- Flattening or misshaped medial trochlear ridge
- Swelling
- SC sclerosis
- Secondary DJD

18

Describe signalment of retained cartilaginous core OC findings of the distal ulnar physis of a dog...

Sex: M and F equal
Age: 6-12 months
Breeds: Giant (St. Bernard, Great Dane, Setters)

19

Describe clinical features of retained cartilaginous core OC findings of the distal ulnar physis of a dog...

- Often incidental finding
- No clinical lameness
- Can result in asynchronous growth

20

Describe radiographic findings of retained cartilaginous core OC findings of the distal ulnar physis of a dog...

- Inverted conical shaped radiolucent zone extending from the distal ulnar physis to distal ulnar metaphysis
- Usually bilateral symmetric

21

Describe OC signalment in Hip Dysplasia of a dog...

Sex: no sex predilection
Breed: All breeds, Giant and Large
Age: 67% by 1 year, 95% by 2 years, 98% by 3 years

22

Describe OC clinical signs in Hip Dysplasia of a dog...

- Genetic Disease
- Joint loose ligaments due to inappropriate development
- Usually bilateral but can be unilateral

- Abnormal gait
- Pain
- Reluctance to rise, jump etc.
- Muscle atrophy

23

Describe OC Radiographic Evaluation in Hip Dysplasia of a dog in extended limb view...

- Limbs extended and parallel with patellas superimposed over femurs
- Symmetrical wings of ilia
- Symmetrical sacroiliac joints
- Symmetrical obturator foramen
- Femurs should equally cross the ischiatic tuberosity
- Entire pelvis and both stifles on film

24

Describe normal radiographic findings for Dogs with Hip Dysplasia...

- Deeply formed cup-shaped acetabulum
- Smooth articular margin
- Greater than 2/3 coverage of femoral head by acetabulum
- Parallel articular margins
- Narrow femoral neck with smooth margins

25

Describe the 4 different types of elbow dysplasia...

1. Fragmented medial coronoid process (FCP)
2. Ununited Anconeal Process (UAP)
3. Osteochondrosis medial humeral epicondyle
4. Ununited medial epicondyle of the humerus

26

Describe the Signalment of Fragmented Medial Coronoid Process...

Sex: M 75: F 25
Age: 4-7 months, detected radiographically at 7-8 months
Breed: Medium to Large breeds

27

Describe the clinical features of Fragmented Medial Coronoid Process (FCP)...

Most common of the elbow dysplasias

Patient may present with a change in gait
- Inward rotation of the elbow
- Outward rotation of the foot
- Stiffness in the front legs
- Worsens with exercise
- Decrease in range of motion of the elbow
- Often Bilateral

28

Describe the radiographic findings of Fragmented Medial Coronoid Process (FCP)...

- Rare to actually see a fragment
- Abnormal contour or poorly defined coronoid process on lateral view
- Blunted or rounded medial coronoid process on Cranial-Caudal view
- Periosteal new bone on the caudal anconeal process
- Sclerosis of the trochlear notch

29

Describe the Signalment of ununited anconeal process (UAP)...

Sex: M2: F1
Age: 5-12 months, detected radiographically from 6 months
Breeds: Large Breeds

30

Describe the Clinical Features of ununited anconeal process (UAP)...

- Should fuse by 5 months
- Weight bearing lameness exacerbated by exercise
- Bilateral 20-35%