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Flashcards in Musculoskeletal Radiography Deck (28)
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1

How many bones are in a dog's body?

319 (tail length dependent)

2

What is the biggest bone in the dog?

Femur

3

What is the smallest bone in the dog?

Stapes

4

From top to bottom, what regions of the bone are these 4 arrows pointing to?

- Epiphysis

- Growth Plate

- Metaphysis

- Diphysis

5

What two questions should you ask yourself everytime you look at a radiograph?

1. Is this image normal or abnormal?

2. If it's abnormal, is this a medical or surgical case?

6

What are the four radiographic densities of body tissues?

1. Bone: 14

2. Soft tissue/ fluid: 7

3. Fat: 6

4. Gas: 4

7

What is every line on a radiograph the result of?

Two of the four densities interfacing with eachother

8

What are the four radiographic signs?

 Abnormal:

- Size

- Shape

- Density

- Location

9

How much calcium must leave the bone before it can be detected radiographically?

Between 50-70%

10

What bone would show the first signs of osteoporosis?

The mandible

11

When does the growth plate disappear?

At 9-12 months

12

How large does a lesion have to be before it can be detected radiographically?

5mm 

13

What can cause bone disease?

- Trauma (acute or chronic)

- Infection  ( bacterial, fungal)

- Neoplasia ( Primary bone tumours, metastatic)

- Metabolic ( Hyperparathyroidism, HOD, HO)

- Degenerative (DJD, osteoarthritis)

14

How does bone respond to disease?

1. Periosteal Proliferation

2. Lysis

3. Periosteal proliferation + lysis

4. Does nothing

15

How long does it take for bone lysis to begin?

6 days

- macrophages come in and begin cleaning up the bone

16

How long does it take for periosteal proliferation to begin?

10-14 days

17

What are the three kinds of bone lesions you can have?

1. Aggressive

2. Non-aggressive

3. Degenerative

18

19

What are the radiographic signs of Bacterial Osteomyelitis?

1. Cortical Lysis

2. Periosteal Proliferation

3. Increased intramedullary swelling

4. Soft tissue swelling

 

 

e.g. Discospondylitis

20

What are the radiographic signs of Fungal Osteomyelitis?

1. Cortical Lysis

2. Periosteal Proliferation

3. Increased intramedullary swelling

4. Soft tissue swelling

21

What are the radiographic signs of a primary bone tumour?

1. Cortical Lysis

2. Periosteal Proliferation

3. Increased intramedullary swelling

4. Soft tissue swelling

22

In what animals do you tend to see primary bone tumours?

- Big breeds

- Older/ geriatric animals

- One bone

- Doesn't cross joint space

- "away from the elbow, toward the knee"

23

In what animals do you tend to see Bacterial osteomyelitis?

- Any breed

- Any age

- Open wound

- Multiple bones

- Will cross joint

- Septicaemia in young dogs

24

In what animals do you tend to see Fungal osteomyelitis?

- young and old

- Endemic areas

- Multiple bones

- May cross joint

- Coccidiodiomycosis, Blastomycosis, Histoplasmosis

25

What is considered bone trauma?

- Fractures and dislocations 

= Lameness and soft tissue swelling

26

What is osteochondrosis?

Any disease that prevents the process of bone growth

- A pediatric Orthopedic Disease

27

What are some examples of Pediatric Orthopedic diseases?

- Osteochondrosis

- Ununited anconeal process

- Fragmented coronoid process

- Hypertrophic osteodystrophy (HOD)

- Panosteitis

- Hip dysplasia

- Ischaemic necrosis of the femoral head

28

What are some different types of arthritis?

- DJD

- Septic

- Immune mediated erosive

- Rheumatoid

- Immune mediated non-erosive

- Lupus

- Rickettsiae