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Flashcards in Intro and Autonomous Deck (37)
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What are potential treatment options for all presenting cases?

- Do nothing
- Give drugs
- Surgery
- Change diet
- Euthanasia
- Most involve drugs


If many animals are affected by the same bacterial problem, what is the best way to dispense their antibiotics?

- Put it in their water trough and make sure all of the animals drink


Describe Greasy Pig Disease...

- Caused by a bacteria Staph. hyicus that normally lives on the skin
- Sometimes it flares up and causes dermatitis where the pigs produce extra sebum from their hair follicles
- Toxins are produced which are absorbed into the system and damage kidneys and liver
- Piglets infected during birth from sow's vagina


What do you need to know about any clinical case?

- History
- Clinical Exam Findings
- DDx
- Lab Tests
- Diagnosis


What do you as a vet need to know when treating cases with drugs?

- Treatment Objectives
- Drugs likely to be active
- Side effects & Interactions
- Monitoring required?
- Pharmacokinetics
- Dose
- Cost
- Do the benefits outweigh the risks


What is the only drug given in a panic situation?

Adrenaline (epinephrine)
- dose rate of 20ug/ kg
- repeat every 5 minutes


What problems do cats have with phenols?

They can have problems metabolising them


What is a BAN?

British approved name for a drug


What is a USAN?

United States Adopted Name for a drug


What are pINN and rINN?

Provisional and Recommended International Nonproprietary Names approved by the WHO


What do we as vets need to know about penicillin antibiotics?

Narrow and broad spectrum penicillins
- broad unnecessary if you know what the bacteria causing the problem is - don't want to cause gut problems with other bacteria

- Procaine penicillin is used quite often
- penicillin is a safe drug safe to double results to ensure results


Where do you IM inject in pigs?

Proximal 1/3 of the neck
- Meat animal


Is SC better than IM?

Yes, but if the animal is sick there will be poor circulation to the skin


What must be considered in terms of blood supply under anaesthesia?

Poor blood supply to all organs for the length of the surgery
- the lungs get almost all of the C.O


What are positive ionotropes?

Drugs that increase the strength of cardiac muscle contraction by increasing amount of intracellular Ca2+ available for binding muscle proteins


What is a sympathomimetic drug?

Mimics effect of sympathetic activation of the heart and circulation
- Stimulates Beta receptors
- Causes vasoconstriction and vascular smooth muscle contraction through alpha receptors

Used where blood pressure needs to be raised by stimulating heart and causing vasoconstriction


What are Cardiac Glycoside drugs?

Drugs used to treat heart failure (oedema caused by a weakened heart) and some arrythmias
- Found in leaf of digitalis plant


What is a phosphodiesterase inhibitor (PDI) drug?

Drugs used to treat heart failure


What are 6 examples of sympathomimetics drugs?

1. Adrenaline
2. Noradrenaline
3. Dopamine
4. Isoprenaline
5. Dobutamine
6. Dopexamine


What is SVR?

Systemic Vascular Resistance
- resistance to blood flow by all of the systemic vasculature


What is the half life of adrenaline?

2 minutes
- must keep giving it


What does an ECG show if there is an adrenaline overdose?

Bigger QRS or T wave


What are abnormal and normal heart rates for horses under analgesia?

Normal: 25-30 bpm
Abnormal: > 50 bpm (tachycardia)


What are some side effects of positive inotropes under analgesia?

- Tachycardia
- Hypertension
- Arrhythmias
- Tolerance


How must adrenaline be administered?q

- usually given as an infusion bag


What is the best way to monitor the effects the surgery is having on an animal under anaesthetics?

Blood Pressure changes


What is Anaphylaxis?

A severe, whole body allergic reaction to a chemical ( often a drug) that has become an allergen
- immune system sensitised after first exposure

Tissues in different parts of the body release histamine which causes: - Airways to Constrict
- Vasodilatation.
- Decreased CO2 and Permeability of blood vessels
- Oedema
- Tremours
- Collapse
- Increased perfusion
= 0 Blood Pressure


How do you treat anaphylaxis?

GIve adrenaline SC or IM
Monitor effects
Only give IV as last resort


What are the dose rates for adrenaline?

SC: 20ug/kg
IV: 5-20ug/kg
Intratracheally: 20-40ug/kg
Intracardiac (last resort): 2ug/kg


Where is adrenaline secreted from?

The adrenal glands