Flashcards in Mussolini: From Prime Minister to Dictator, 1922-1928, Economic Policies Deck (140)
Which social groups supported Mussolini?
- Middle classes
- Landowners and farmers
- Catholics and the Church
- The armed forces
- The King
What tools did Mussolini use to control support?
- Cult of Personality
- Tight control of media (newspaper, television, radio)
- Secret police used
- Removal of opposition
How and why did Victor Emmanuel support Mussolini?
Victor Emmanuel handed over power to Mussolini in 1922, because he needed him to secure his own position
Why did Mussolini need the support of Victor Emmanuel?
Mussolini needed the support of Victor Emmanuel to ensure the armed forces would support him
How long was it until Victor Emmanuel stood up to Mussolini?
It was not until 1943 that Emmanuel stood up to Mussolini, returning to Parliament those powers which Mussolini had taken from them
Why did the armed forces support Mussolini?
The armed forces supported Mussolini's aim to restore national greatness and pursue an active, aggressive foreign policy
How did the armed forces view Mussolini's decision to assume the position of War Minister in 1925?
They supported his decision to become War Minister in 1925
Which Mussolini policies particularly pleased the armed forces?
- Attacks on left-wing dissidents
- Strong line on law and order
- Abandonment of reducing the size of the army
were all very popular with the armed forces
Which military successes raised the profile of the armed forces in Italian society?
Abyssinia, Vittorrio Veneto, other conquests in Africa
Why did industrialists support Mussolini?
Industrialists (like Pirelli and Olivetti) were pleased by the Fascist strike-breaking activities and their opposition to trade unions
Who else supported Fascist attacks on left wing groups?
Police officers, landlords and middle class business people all welcomed Fascist attacks on left wing groups
Why did many liberal politicians back the move to grant Mussolini emergency powers?
Many liberal politicians preferred a fascist government to a full blown socialist regime, and so backed the move to grant him emergency powers
Why did Mussolini have to build relations with the Catholic Church?
Mussolini had to build relations with the Catholic Church because it was a very powerful institution
What was the attitude of the new Pope Pius, elected in 1921?
Pope Pius was strongly anti-Communist, and like many church leaders, saw Fascism as a way of ensuring stability, ending violence and protecting Christian values
What did many church leaders see Fascism as offering?
Many church leaders saw Fascism as offering resistance to left-wing groups, protecting Christian values (no divorce etc), ending violence, restoring law and order and providing stability
How did Mussolini deal with the threat of the popular Popolari Party (of Catholics)?
Mussonlini dealt with Popolari by allowing Poplari members to join his coalition, choosing to work with the Church rather than against it
What measures did Mussolini introduce which pleased the Church?
- Compulsory RE in schools
- Making contraception a criminal offence
- Improving clergies salaries
- Banning anti-Church journals
- Dropping proposals to take over Church property
When did the Lateran Treaties improve the relations between the Church and the State?
The Lateran Treaties restored the relationship between the Church and the State in 1929
When were the Lateran Treaties?
The Lateran Treaties were signed between Mussolini and the Catholic Church in 1929
What else did the Lateran Treaties, 1929, set up?
The Lateran Treaties in 1929 set up Vatican City as an independent state within Rome with the Pope as Head
How much did the state give the Church as compensation for land taken at reunification?
The Church was given 750 million liras as compensation for land taken at reunification
What did the Concordat do?
The Concordat made Roman Catholicism the State religion. The Pope appointed Bishops, although they had to receive the blessing of the government
How are the Lateran Treaties, 1929, regarded?
The Lateran Treaties, 1929, are regarded as one of the greatest of Mussolini's achievements
What did Mussolini attempt to end in 1922? (PV....)
- After 1922, Mussolini aimed to end political violence and return to normal constitutional methods - he formed a government made up of largely non-fascist, right wing elements - a national government
- The National government was generally welcomed
What did Mussolini demand in a speech to the Chamber in 1922?
In 1922, Mussolini demanded powers to rule alone - emergency powers
Who were for and against Mussolini being granted emergency powers in 1922?
The Socialists and Communists opposed giving Mussolini emergency powers, but leading transformismo politicians such as Giolitti and Salandra voted in favour
How did Mussolini attempt to solve the problem of controlling the Fascist squads, 1922-23?
Mussolini created the Fascist Militia in 1923. Ex-army officers were put in charge of local units, and 200 unruly ras were expelled from the movement. The militia were put into uniform and given a high profile
Who were the Fascist Militia, created 1923, loyal to?
The Fascist Militia, created in 1923, were loyal to the Duce, not the King
Who were the personal bodyguard of Mussolini?
The cheka were the secret personal bodyguard of Mussolini, made up of Fascist thugs who terrorised all opponents