The Weaknesses of Liberal Italy, 1870-1915, Chapter 1 and The Rise of Fascism, 1915-1921, Chapter 2 Flashcards Preview

Italy: The Rise of Fascism 1915-1945 > The Weaknesses of Liberal Italy, 1870-1915, Chapter 1 and The Rise of Fascism, 1915-1921, Chapter 2 > Flashcards

Flashcards in The Weaknesses of Liberal Italy, 1870-1915, Chapter 1 and The Rise of Fascism, 1915-1921, Chapter 2 Deck (72)
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1

Why was Italy politically unstable in the late nineteenth century?

- Politics were monopolised by a small, powerful elite elected by a small percentage of the population
- In Parliament, parties were weak and ineffective
- Large political coalitions were formed, in a system of Transformismo
- The Liberals (most often in power) did not develop a structured party, but were instead a series of personal groupings with no links to political constituencies
- Some radicals wanted reform of the monarchy, and their demands and views weren't met by the Republican Party or any other group
- The North-South divide and generally limited industry and agriculture caused a gulf in political opinion and ideas

2

How many men could vote in Italy before 1912?

Only 2 million men could vote in Italy before 1912

3

Who was Prime Minister of Italy 5 times between 1892 and 1922?

Giovanni Giolitti was Prime Minister 5 times between 1982 and 1922

4

What year was the railway system nationalised?

The railway system was nationalised in 1905

5

Which kind of thinkers attacked the inefficiency and poor leadership of the Liberals, and demanded stronger government?

Gabriele D'Annunzio, Marinetti and Croce attacked the corruption and drift of Liberal Society and began to suggest simpler, more extreme models of political action

6

What year was the Socialist Party founded?

The Socialist Party was founded in 1892

7

How many seats in Parliament did the Socialist Party have by 1900?

The Socialist Party had 32 seats in Parliament by 1900

8

What did the Papacy do in fear of the growing support for Socialism?

The Papacy, in response to the growing support for Socialism, relaxed its ban on Catholic involvement in politics. In 1909, 17 Catholic deputies were elected to the Chamber

9

What was the Pope's argument against the state?

The Papacy felt Rome had been illegally taken from the Church

10

Why was there dissatisfaction with the Liberals? (from nationalists....)

There was dissatisfaction at the Liberals inability to build an Empire, particularly from Nationalists, who saw a growth in their party membership

11

What was Italia irredenta?

Italia irredenta means 'unredeemed Italy', and was favoured by Nationalists who believed Italy ought to have more of an empire, in Austro-Hungarian territories like Trentino and Trieste

12

What territorial gains did Italy make in 1911? (L, D,R)

Nationalists were jubilant at the gain of Libya, Rhodes and the Dodecanese in 1911

13

Why was there wide-spread rioting and large-scale strikes in 1914, called 'Red Week'?

There was wide-spread rioting and large-scale strikes in 1914, called 'Red Week' against:
- Heavy taxation to support the was in Libya, Rhodes and the Dodecanese
- Giolitti's aim to absorb the working class into the Liberal system

14

What effect did Red Week, 1914. (working class riots and strikes) have on the middle and upper classes in Italy?

Red Week, 1914, the striking and rioting of workers in response to Giolitti's reforms and heavy taxation was fear - it highlighted the problems of unification, ie. inequality between North and South

15

How did newspapers portray the Liberal government after Red Week, 1914?

Newspapers claimed the government was weak, ineffective and unable to deal with the riots and strikes

16

What did Nationalists and anti-Socialists want from the government?

Nationalists wanted a more aggressive foreign policy and more military spending, whilst anti-Socialists demanded action to curb the power of the trade unions - they saw the Liberal State as weak

17

How did universal male suffrage in Italy, 1912, change Italian politics?

Many more workers could vote, and wanted strong policies and their needs met - rise of Socialism

18

Which Alliance was Italy in, in the years preceding WWI?

Italy sided with Germany in the Austria-Hungary Alliance in the years preceding the war

19

What side did Italy join WWI on in 1915?

Italy joined the Triple-Entente with Britain, France and Russia in 1915, on the basis that they were promised territories such as Istria, Dalmatia and Tyrol

20

What Treaty did Italy sign to join the Triple-Entente with France, Russia and Britain?

Italy signed the Treaty of London in 1915 to join the Triple-Entene

21

What did the Treaty of London promise in return for Italian involvement in the Triple-Entente?

The Treaty of London promised Italy territories of Istria, Dalmatia and Tyrol

22

What was Italian opinion to joining WWI?

Italian opinion was deeply divided when it came to joining WWI - Giolitti and many Liberals opposed it, whilst Nationalists, radicals and republicans encouraged involvement

23

How did the Battle of Caporetto, 1917, go for Italy?

The Battle of Caporetto was a humiliating defeat and disaster for Italy

24

Where was there victory in 1918?

In 1918, the Italians were victorious at Vittorio Veneto

25

How many Italian casualties were there in WWI?

There were 1.5 million casualties in WWI

26

What were the consequences of WWI for Italy?

- Humiliation and shame following defeat at Caporetto
- 1.5 million casualties
- Enormous debt following borrowing to fund war
- Inflation and high prices, destroy savings of middle classes
- Poor workers discontent grows, along with it support for the Socialists
- Bitter returning soldiers
- 'Mutilated victory' after Italy is not granted all she is promised
- Reinforces idea of weak Liberal government

27

What was the Fiume Crisis, 1919?

The Fiume Crisis, 1919, was the seizure of Fiume in 1919 by Gabriele D'Annunzio and 2000 followers, who occupied Fiume for over a year

28

How did the Italian public react to the seizure of Fiume, 1919?

There was great public support for the seizure of Fiueme in 1919

29

Why did the Government not deal with the incident?

The government was scared to give orders to the military to end the seizure in case they refused, and because the cause was so popular with the Italian people - showing their weakness

30

How was the Seizure eventually ended?

The Seizure of Fiume 1919 was ended by a compromise with Yugoslavia and Italian military action