Flashcards in The Weaknesses of Liberal Italy, 1870-1915, Chapter 1 and The Rise of Fascism, 1915-1921, Chapter 2 Deck (72)
Why was Italy politically unstable in the late nineteenth century?
- Politics were monopolised by a small, powerful elite elected by a small percentage of the population
- In Parliament, parties were weak and ineffective
- Large political coalitions were formed, in a system of Transformismo
- The Liberals (most often in power) did not develop a structured party, but were instead a series of personal groupings with no links to political constituencies
- Some radicals wanted reform of the monarchy, and their demands and views weren't met by the Republican Party or any other group
- The North-South divide and generally limited industry and agriculture caused a gulf in political opinion and ideas
How many men could vote in Italy before 1912?
Only 2 million men could vote in Italy before 1912
Who was Prime Minister of Italy 5 times between 1892 and 1922?
Giovanni Giolitti was Prime Minister 5 times between 1982 and 1922
What year was the railway system nationalised?
The railway system was nationalised in 1905
Which kind of thinkers attacked the inefficiency and poor leadership of the Liberals, and demanded stronger government?
Gabriele D'Annunzio, Marinetti and Croce attacked the corruption and drift of Liberal Society and began to suggest simpler, more extreme models of political action
What year was the Socialist Party founded?
The Socialist Party was founded in 1892
How many seats in Parliament did the Socialist Party have by 1900?
The Socialist Party had 32 seats in Parliament by 1900
What did the Papacy do in fear of the growing support for Socialism?
The Papacy, in response to the growing support for Socialism, relaxed its ban on Catholic involvement in politics. In 1909, 17 Catholic deputies were elected to the Chamber
What was the Pope's argument against the state?
The Papacy felt Rome had been illegally taken from the Church
Why was there dissatisfaction with the Liberals? (from nationalists....)
There was dissatisfaction at the Liberals inability to build an Empire, particularly from Nationalists, who saw a growth in their party membership
What was Italia irredenta?
Italia irredenta means 'unredeemed Italy', and was favoured by Nationalists who believed Italy ought to have more of an empire, in Austro-Hungarian territories like Trentino and Trieste
What territorial gains did Italy make in 1911? (L, D,R)
Nationalists were jubilant at the gain of Libya, Rhodes and the Dodecanese in 1911
Why was there wide-spread rioting and large-scale strikes in 1914, called 'Red Week'?
There was wide-spread rioting and large-scale strikes in 1914, called 'Red Week' against:
- Heavy taxation to support the was in Libya, Rhodes and the Dodecanese
- Giolitti's aim to absorb the working class into the Liberal system
What effect did Red Week, 1914. (working class riots and strikes) have on the middle and upper classes in Italy?
Red Week, 1914, the striking and rioting of workers in response to Giolitti's reforms and heavy taxation was fear - it highlighted the problems of unification, ie. inequality between North and South
How did newspapers portray the Liberal government after Red Week, 1914?
Newspapers claimed the government was weak, ineffective and unable to deal with the riots and strikes
What did Nationalists and anti-Socialists want from the government?
Nationalists wanted a more aggressive foreign policy and more military spending, whilst anti-Socialists demanded action to curb the power of the trade unions - they saw the Liberal State as weak
How did universal male suffrage in Italy, 1912, change Italian politics?
Many more workers could vote, and wanted strong policies and their needs met - rise of Socialism
Which Alliance was Italy in, in the years preceding WWI?
Italy sided with Germany in the Austria-Hungary Alliance in the years preceding the war
What side did Italy join WWI on in 1915?
Italy joined the Triple-Entente with Britain, France and Russia in 1915, on the basis that they were promised territories such as Istria, Dalmatia and Tyrol
What Treaty did Italy sign to join the Triple-Entente with France, Russia and Britain?
Italy signed the Treaty of London in 1915 to join the Triple-Entene
What did the Treaty of London promise in return for Italian involvement in the Triple-Entente?
The Treaty of London promised Italy territories of Istria, Dalmatia and Tyrol
What was Italian opinion to joining WWI?
Italian opinion was deeply divided when it came to joining WWI - Giolitti and many Liberals opposed it, whilst Nationalists, radicals and republicans encouraged involvement
How did the Battle of Caporetto, 1917, go for Italy?
The Battle of Caporetto was a humiliating defeat and disaster for Italy
Where was there victory in 1918?
In 1918, the Italians were victorious at Vittorio Veneto
How many Italian casualties were there in WWI?
There were 1.5 million casualties in WWI
What were the consequences of WWI for Italy?
- Humiliation and shame following defeat at Caporetto
- 1.5 million casualties
- Enormous debt following borrowing to fund war
- Inflation and high prices, destroy savings of middle classes
- Poor workers discontent grows, along with it support for the Socialists
- Bitter returning soldiers
- 'Mutilated victory' after Italy is not granted all she is promised
- Reinforces idea of weak Liberal government
What was the Fiume Crisis, 1919?
The Fiume Crisis, 1919, was the seizure of Fiume in 1919 by Gabriele D'Annunzio and 2000 followers, who occupied Fiume for over a year
How did the Italian public react to the seizure of Fiume, 1919?
There was great public support for the seizure of Fiueme in 1919
Why did the Government not deal with the incident?
The government was scared to give orders to the military to end the seizure in case they refused, and because the cause was so popular with the Italian people - showing their weakness