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How far do you agree that the Catholic Church and the traditional elites aided Mussolini in his consolidation of power in the years 1922-29?

Catholic Church - Lateran Treaties of 1929
King - obedient to Mussolini, allowed him to pass laws by personal decree
Army - Supported Mussolini's refusal to reduce the size of the armed forces and pursue a more aggressive foreign policy

Other factors:
- Failure of opposition
- Use of Blackshirts, Fascist Militia
- Censorship of media
- Cult of Personality
- People pleased by conquests in Foreign Policy and strong leadership - Corfu incident


To what extent was Italy politically and economically united in the years 1986-1914?

Not united politically:
- only 2 million men can vote until 1912
- North-South divide (South very reactionary)
- Middle class elites dominate parliament
- Liberal government consisted of transformismo coalitions, bargaining and corruption

Not united economically:
- North South divide
- Poverty of South
- Increase in industrialisation in North


How far was growth in the support for fascism in Italy in the years 1919-22 responsible for Mussolini's appointment as Prime Minister?

- Party membership increased to 300,000 by 1922
- Mussolini's threat to March on Rome
- Fascist violence
- Support of middle classes, industrialists, landowners
- Failure of opposition and weakness of Liberal Government
- Role of King Victor Emmanuel
- Support of key figures such as D'Annunzio


How far do you agree that Mussolini's foreign policy in the years 1933 to 1941 was a complete failure?

- Cost of Somalian and attempt at Egyptian invasion
- Resources used in intervening in Spanish Civil War and maintaining Ethiopia
- Consequences of actions in Abyssinia causing League of Nations to impose sanctions
- National pride
- Support of nationalists and increases cult of personality
- Sanctions don't affect raw materials


How far does the North-South divide in Italy explain the weaknesses of the Liberal state in the years 1896-1914?

North-South divide means hard to strike balance in Parliament

Other reasons:
- Transformismo
- Middle class elite
- Only 2 million can vote until 1912
- Constant change of government
- Coalitions
- Refusal of parties to work together


To what extent did Mussolini's economic policies improve the standard of living of ordinary Italians in the years 1922-43?

- Battle for the Grain
- Wheat production doubled
- Almost self-sufficient
- Little change for workers
- Battle for the Lira
- Makes exports more expensive
- Battle for the Marshes
- Only 10,000 people actually resettled
- Battle for Births


To what extent does disappointment with the outcome of the First World War explain growing support for the Italian Fascist Party in the years 1919-22?

- 'Mutilated victory'
- National debt, unemployment, inflation, low living standards, returning soldiers, loss of pride
- Growing fear of socialism from Middle Classes
- Support of Catholic Church (family values, anti-Communist)
- Support of industrialists and land owners - striking workers attacked by Fascist squadristi


How successful was Mussolini in increasing the international prestige of Italy in the years 1922-43?

- Attends Locarno Treaty
- 'Mussolini made the trains run on time'
- Battle for the Marshes gives impression to journalists of change
- Stresa front, 1939

Damaging prestige:


To what extent had the pressing political problems of the 1890s in Italy been solved by 1914?



How accurate is it to say that the growing power of the Fascist Party in Italy in the years 1919-25 was mainly due to Mussolini's leadership?

- Mussolini intimidated by ras
- Squadristi violence
- Middle classes scared of Communism
- Promised aggressive foreign policy
- Seemed to offer strong leadership


To what extent was Italy's attempt to become a great power responsible for the political instability of the Liberal State in the years 1896-1922?

- Cost
- Humiliation of Adowa and other losses infuriates Nationalists, creates resentment
- Transformismo
- Corruption and bribery
- Coalitions
- Middle class elites
- North South divide


To what extent was Fascist control of Italy during the years 1925-43 the result of the effective use of propaganda?

- Propaganda (cinema newsreel, tv, radio)
- Cult of Personality
- Fascist violence and intimidation
- Little opposition
- Support of King, Church and Armed Forces
- Support of middle classes
- Successes in foreign policy
- Strong leadership


How successful were Giolitti's governments in promoting political stability in Italy in the years 1903 to 1914?



How far do you agree that the consolidation of Fascist power in Italy in the years 1922-29 was mainly due to the use of force and intimidation?



How far do you agree that the rise of the Fascist Party in the years 1919-22 was the most important reason for the collapse of the Liberal State?

- Mutilated victory
- 1912 universal male suffrage


How accurate is it to say that Mussolini's foreign policy increased his popularity in the years 1922-41?

- National pride
- Support of Nationalists
- Decreased living standards due to amount spent on armed forces
- Apparent economic stability