Flashcards in Mussolini's Foreign Policy, 1933-1941 Deck (107)
What was foreign policy expected to be like under Mussolini?
Foreign policy was expected to be robust and aggressive under Mussolini to restore Italian national pride and show how powerful Italy was
What did Mussolini believe was the sign of a great nation?
Mussolini believed conquering foreign territory to be the sign of a great nation
What grievance did Mussolini share with many Italians?
Grievances about the Treaty of Versailles
What did Mussolini believe should be an Italian sphere of influence?
Mussolini believed that the Mediterranean Sea should be an Italian sphere of influence
Who dominated the Mediterranean with naval bases in Malta, Gibraltar and Cyprus?
The British dominated the Mediterranean Sea, with naval bases in Malta, Gibraltar and Cyprus
What happened in 1923 in Corfu?
In Corfu in 1923, an Italian general and four of his staff were assassinated in Greece
What did Mussolini demand from the Greek government after the assassination of an Italian general in 1923?
After the assassination of the Italian general in 1923, Mussolini demanded a full apology from the Greek government and a compensation payment of 50 million lira
What did Mussolini do after the Greek government refused to apologise and pay 50 million lira compensation, 1923?
Mussolini ordered the bombardment and occupation of Corfu
How did the European powers, led by Britain, react to the Italian occupation and bombardment of Corfu, 1923?
The European powers, led by Britain, demanded that Italy withdraw
What was Mussolini forced to do?
Mussolini had little choice but to withdraw from Corfu
What did Mussolini receive after the Corfu incident, 1923?
Mussolini received the 50 million lira compensation, but not a full apology - this was hailed as a great success for Italian Fascism
What brought Mussolini great prestige in 1924?
In 1924, Mussolini managed to convince Yugoslavia to accept Fiume as part of Italy
What did Mussolini establish in Albania in 1926?
Mussolini established an Italian protectorate over Albania in 1926, the first step in Italian imperial expansion
What treaties did Italy sign with the major European powers in 1925, allowing him to pose as a major European statesman?
Mussolini signed the Locarno Treaties in 1925 with the major European powers, allowing him to pose as a major statesman
What did the Locarno Treaties in 1925 agree?
The Locarno Treaties of 1925 agreed the permanence of Germany's borders
What did Italy agree to in the Kellogg-Briand pact of 1928?
Italy signed the Kellogg-Briand Pact of 1928, outlawing war
What did Mussolini aim to make Italy?
Mussolini aimed to make Italy 'great, respected and feared'
When did Mussolini take full control of the North of Somalia?
Mussolini took control of the north of Somalia in the 1920s
What benefit did African conquered land such as Eritrea and the north of Somalia yield?
Neither Eritrea nor the north of Somalia yielded much benefit
Why did Mussolini move his troops to the Austrian border in 1934?
Mussolini moved his troops to the Austrian border in 1934 to discourage Hitler from pursuing his ambitions against Austria
When was the Stresa Front formed?
The Stresa Front was formed in 1935
What was the Stresa Front, 1935?
The Stresa Front was an agreement between the British, French and Italian against German rearmament
Why was Mussolini alarmed at the increasing power of Germany?
Mussolini thought the increasing power of Germany may threaten Austrian independence and therefore the security of the Italian border
Why did Mussolini become less worried about the increasing threat posed by Germany?
Mussolini felt that an increasingly aggressive Germany might occupy France, who would therefore be less interested in blocking his ambitions in the Mediterranean and Africa
What did Mussolini realise about Hitler's territorial ambitions?
Mussolini realised that Hitler's ambitions lay in northern and eastern Europe, clearing the way for Italian expansion into the Mediterranean, the Balkans and Africa
How did Mussolini view the failure of France and Britain to stand up to Hitler?
The failure of France and Britain to stand up to Hitler filled Mussolini with contempt for Western democracies
How many African colonies had Italy acquired by the late nineteenth century?
Italy had taken a few colonies in Africa in the late nineteenth
When were the Italians heavily defeated by the Abyssinians in 1896, at the Battle Of Adowa?
Battle of Adowa, 1896 - the loss of 6000 men against an African colony was humiliating
How did Mussolini begin the proceedings to attack Abyssinia?
In 1934, Mussolini accused the Abyssinians of agression at Wal Wal oasis on the Ethipian border with Italian Somaliland - several Italian soldiers were killed