What was foreign policy expected to be like under Mussolini?
Foreign policy was expected to be robust and aggressive under Mussolini to restore Italian national pride and show how powerful Italy was
What did Mussolini believe was the sign of a great nation?
Mussolini believed conquering foreign territory to be the sign of a great nation
What grievance did Mussolini share with many Italians?
Grievances about the Treaty of Versailles
What did Mussolini believe should be an Italian sphere of influence?
Mussolini believed that the Mediterranean Sea should be an Italian sphere of influence
Who dominated the Mediterranean with naval bases in Malta, Gibraltar and Cyprus?
The British dominated the Mediterranean Sea, with naval bases in Malta, Gibraltar and Cyprus
What happened in 1923 in Corfu?
In Corfu in 1923, an Italian general and four of his staff were assassinated in Greece
What did Mussolini demand from the Greek government after the assassination of an Italian general in 1923?
After the assassination of the Italian general in 1923, Mussolini demanded a full apology from the Greek government and a compensation payment of 50 million lira
What did Mussolini do after the Greek government refused to apologise and pay 50 million lira compensation, 1923?
Mussolini ordered the bombardment and occupation of Corfu
How did the European powers, led by Britain, react to the Italian occupation and bombardment of Corfu, 1923?
The European powers, led by Britain, demanded that Italy withdraw
What was Mussolini forced to do?
Mussolini had little choice but to withdraw from Corfu
What did Mussolini receive after the Corfu incident, 1923?
Mussolini received the 50 million lira compensation, but not a full apology - this was hailed as a great success for Italian Fascism
What brought Mussolini great prestige in 1924?
In 1924, Mussolini managed to convince Yugoslavia to accept Fiume as part of Italy
What did Mussolini establish in Albania in 1926?
Mussolini established an Italian protectorate over Albania in 1926, the first step in Italian imperial expansion
What treaties did Italy sign with the major European powers in 1925, allowing him to pose as a major European statesman?
Mussolini signed the Locarno Treaties in 1925 with the major European powers, allowing him to pose as a major statesman
What did the Locarno Treaties in 1925 agree?
The Locarno Treaties of 1925 agreed the permanence of Germany’s borders
What did Italy agree to in the Kellogg-Briand pact of 1928?
Italy signed the Kellogg-Briand Pact of 1928, outlawing war
What did Mussolini aim to make Italy?
Mussolini aimed to make Italy ‘great, respected and feared’
When did Mussolini take full control of the North of Somalia?
Mussolini took control of the north of Somalia in the 1920s
What benefit did African conquered land such as Eritrea and the north of Somalia yield?
Neither Eritrea nor the north of Somalia yielded much benefit
Why did Mussolini move his troops to the Austrian border in 1934?
Mussolini moved his troops to the Austrian border in 1934 to discourage Hitler from pursuing his ambitions against Austria
When was the Stresa Front formed?
The Stresa Front was formed in 1935
What was the Stresa Front, 1935?
The Stresa Front was an agreement between the British, French and Italian against German rearmament
Why was Mussolini alarmed at the increasing power of Germany?
Mussolini thought the increasing power of Germany may threaten Austrian independence and therefore the security of the Italian border
Why did Mussolini become less worried about the increasing threat posed by Germany?
Mussolini felt that an increasingly aggressive Germany might occupy France, who would therefore be less interested in blocking his ambitions in the Mediterranean and Africa
What did Mussolini realise about Hitler’s territorial ambitions?
Mussolini realised that Hitler’s ambitions lay in northern and eastern Europe, clearing the way for Italian expansion into the Mediterranean, the Balkans and Africa
How did Mussolini view the failure of France and Britain to stand up to Hitler?
The failure of France and Britain to stand up to Hitler filled Mussolini with contempt for Western democracies
How many African colonies had Italy acquired by the late nineteenth century?
Italy had taken a few colonies in Africa in the late nineteenth
When were the Italians heavily defeated by the Abyssinians in 1896, at the Battle Of Adowa?
Battle of Adowa, 1896 - the loss of 6000 men against an African colony was humiliating
How did Mussolini begin the proceedings to attack Abyssinia?
In 1934, Mussolini accused the Abyssinians of agression at Wal Wal oasis on the Ethipian border with Italian Somaliland - several Italian soldiers were killed
What did Mussolini do after the supposed aggression at the Wal Wal oasis?
Mussolini ordered Italian troops into Somaliland and Eritrea to attack Abyssinia. Large amounts of ammunition and supplies had been stockpiled there
When did Italy invade Abyssinia with 400,000 men?
Italy invaded Abyssinia with 400,000 men in 1935
What did Italy use against Abyssinia in 1935?
Mustard gas and armoured vehicles were used against Abyssinia by Italy in 1935
When did Adis Ababa fall?
Addis Ababa fell in 1936
What action did Abyssinia take? (LoN)
Abyssinia appealed to the League of Nations for help
How did the League of Nations react to Italy’s actions against Abyssinia?
The League condemned Italy, and League members were ordered to impose economic sanctions on Italy
What was the problem with economic sanctions imposed on Italy by the League?
The sanctions didn’t include vital materials such as oil, and so didn’t hamper the Italian war effort
- They also took a long time to invoke
Why were Britain and France concerned about provoking Mussolini?
In case Mussolini attacked British bases in the Mediterranean Sea
How did the British foreign secretary and French Prime Minister try to end the war?
The British and French came up with the Hoare-Laval Pact in 1935 to try and end the Italian war in Abyssinia
What was the reaction to the Hoare-Laval Pact, 1935?
Mussolini accepted the pact, but in Britain there was an outcry that Britain was betraying the people of Abyssinia - causing the pact to be dropped
What had the Hoare-Laval Pact demonstrated?
The Hoare-Laval Pact, 1935, had indicated that teo major European League members were prepared to negotiate with a nation that had used aggression to control a weaker nation
What was the involvement of the League in the Abyssinia crisis?
The involvement of the League in the Abyssinia crisis was a disaster
What did Italian propaganda say about Abyssinia?
Italian propaganda claimed Abyssinia was a great success and great personal triumph for Mussolini
How did Italians feel about the League of Nations involvement?
Italians generally were encouraged to support Mussolini against the League, the venture being portrayed as a fight for national survival
What was the outcome of the Abyssinian invasion?
- The country remained under Italian control until 1941
- It proved to be of little benefit to Italy
- Encouraged propaganda and cult of personality in Italy
- Cost Italy greatly, deficit of 2195 million lira
Who did Italy look for as allies following the War with Abyssinia?
Italy looked to ally with Germany and Spain
When did civil war break out in Spain between Republicans and Nationalists?
Civil War broke out in Spain between Republicans and Nationalists in 1936
Who did Hitler and Mussolini send volunteers to support in Spain, 1936?
Mussolini and Hitler sent volunteers to support Nationalists in Spain in 1936
How did Mussolini see Italian involvement in Spain?
Mussolini saw Italian involvement in Spain as another opportunity to increase his power and influence
How was involvement in the Spanish Civil war received in Italy?
Italian involvement in the Spanish Civil War was deeply unpopular in Italy
What effects did involvement in the Spanish Civil war have on Italy?
- Damaged public finances
- Damaged relations with Britain and France
- Forced Italy closer to Germany
Why did Italy and Germany grow closer after the war in Abyssinia?
Italy and Germany grew closer as Italy’s relationship with Britain and France deteriorated after they imposed League of Nation sanctions
What brought Italy and Germany even closer?
Italy and Germany’s support of Nationalists in Spain brought them even closer
When did Italian foreign minister Ciano visit Berlin to be assured by Hitler that German territorial ambitions did not extend into the Mediterranean?
What did Italy agree in exchange for assurance Germany did not have Mediterranean ambitions?
Italy acknowledged the German right to rearm and German influence in Austria. Within days, Mussolini announced the Berlin-Rome Axis
When did Mussolini take Italy out of the League of Nations after it imposed sanctions on Italy following the invasion of Abyssinia?
Mussolini took Italy out of the League of Nations in 1937, following sanctions imposed on Italy after their invasion of Abyssinia
What was the Rome-Berlin Axis, 1936?
The Rome-Berlin Axis was the declaration of friendship between Germany and Italy
What was the Anti-Comintern Pact, 1937?
The Anti-Comintern Pact, 1937, was signed by Germany, France and Italy, and declared that they would work together against Soviet Russia
When did Germany occupy Austria in the Anchluss?
Germany occupied Austria in the Anschluss in 1938
Why did Germany’s occupation of Austria in the Anschluss bother Mussolini?
Germany’s occupation of Austria in the Anschluss in 1938 bothered Mussolini as he received no prior warning and could do nothing to prevent it
How did Mussolini gain prestige despite Germany’s actions in the Anschluss?
Mussolini called the Munich Conference in 1938, for which he gained considerable praise and admiration
Why did the German invasion of Czechoslovakia in 1939 anger Mussolini?
It appeared to Mussolini that Hitler was carving out his own empire with no regard for Mussolini
When did Mussolini take over Albania?
Mussolini took over Albania in 1939 - a sign to the world of Italy’s ambitions in Europe
What year did Germany and Italy strengthen their friendship with the Pact of Steel?
Germany and Italy strengthened their friendship with the Pact of Steel in 1939
When did Germany invade Poland?
Germany invaded Poland in 1939
What happened to the promises made between Germany and Italy made in the Pact of Steel?
Whilst Hitler fully supported Mussolini’s support, Mussolini decided Italy was not yet ready for war, breaking the promises made in the Pact of Steel
Why did Italy enter the war in 1940?
Italy entered the war in 1940 as Mussolini was evidently jealous of Hilter’s successes and wanted his share of the victory
Where did Mussolini order an invasion of?
Mussolini ordered an invasion of Southern France in 1940 - a small piece of land was sized but fierce French resistance meant it came to nothing
Where did Mussolini order Italian troops to attack British troops, 1940?
Mussolini ordered the army to attack British troops in Egypt
For how long did Italy fight alongside Germany in WWII?
Italy fought alongside Germany in WWII from 1940 to 1943
What mistake did Italy make in regards to Malta?
Italy failed to make any move to capture the strategically important island of Malta - it remained a British naval base throughout the War
What could Italy not do without aircraft carriers?
Italy could not command the Western Meditteranean without aircraft carriers
What was another error in regards to Gibraltar?
Italy did not assault the British base at Gibraltar - it commanded the Western entrance to the Mediterranean
What offer from Germany did Italy fail to take up?
Italy failed to take up Germany’s offer to occupy the defeated French colony of Tunisia with its modern naval base at Bizerta
Where did Mussolini send 300 Italian aircraft to in 1940?
In 1940, Mussolini sent 300 aircraft carriers to Belgium - they all lacked the rage and speed to be of use, but could have been invaluable attacking British targets in the Meditteranean
What were the consequences of Mussolini’s decision to invade Greece in 1940?
Mussolini’s decision to invade Greece in 1940 ended in the Greek army counter-attacking and invading Albania
What were the problems with co-ordination and supply?
There was no co-ordination of the efforts of the attacking forces and supply lines through The Adriatic and Albania were totally inadequate
When were the Italian navy defeated by the Greek army?
The Italian navy were defeated in 1941 at Cape Matapan
Who did Mussolini declare war on, against German wishes, in 1941?
Mussolini declared war on the Soviet Union, against Germany’s wishes, in 1941
How were equipped were the Italian army?
The Italian army were short of tanks and with inadequate motor transport, the force proved completely ineffective
What did Italy’s defeat by Italy coincide with?
Italy’s defeat by Greece coincided with the defeat of Italian forces in Libya by the British
What was the outcome of Italian attempts in North Africa to seize Egypt and the Suez Canal?
Italy’s attempts to seize Egypt and the Suez Canal failed
What did Italy refuse, who had to intervene later?
Italy refused German help, but Germany had to intervene later to support them
When did King Victor Emmanuel remove Mussolini from office?
In July 1943, the King removed Mussolini from office
What failures had Italy suffered under Mussolini in WWII?
- Defeat by Greece
- Failure to seize Egypt and Suez Canal
- Routed by British forces in Libya
When did the King remove Mussolini from office?
The King removed Mussolini from office in 1943
Why was the Italian military performance so disappointing?
- Pre-war claims that Italy had an army of between 8 and 9 million soldiers, when in reality they had under 3 million
- Poorly supplied
- No overall strategy
- Woefully inadequate intelligence netwrk
- Occupation of Ethiopia and Spanish intervention used up much of Italy’s military resources
- Italian economy was not strong enough to support major military campaign
- NO co-ordinating ministry to organise the future war effort
- Propaganda was removed from reality and there was no questioning of plans or figures
- Mussolini was personally involved in all major policy decisions and majorly impaired progress
How many were actually in the Italian army, when compared to claimed figures?
3 million were in the Italian army, rather than the 9 million claimed
How well supplied were the Italian army?
The Italian army were poorly supplied - virtually no tanks, no aircraft carriers, too many bombers and too few fighters, no knowledge of radar
Why did Italy perform so badly in the war?
- Poorly supplied
- No questioning of facts
- Mussolini’s interference
- Economy not strong enough
- Army smaller than claimed
- Poor intelligence
- Resources drained by Ethiopia and Spanish intervention
How did the War affect life on the Home Front?
- There was no general call-up of men into the military
- Rationing of food and consumer goods came very slowly
- Private cars still used, luxury goods still available
- Armaments industry didn’t exceed peacetime production until 1942
- As shortages emerged, peasant farmers started hoarding food and a vast black market emerged
- The Italian economy was unable to respond to wartime demand and suffered badly from shortages of fuel and raw materials
- Steel production fell
What was the consequence in the sharp decline of raw materials and adequate power supplies?
The lack of raw materials and power led to a sharp decline in armaments and military transport production
How did the Italian economy run during the war?
The Fascist run economy failed to function effectively during the war
When were shoes and clothing rationed, private cars banned and the heating of houses restricted?
Shoes and clothes rationing, the banning of private cars and restricted heating of homes began in 1942
How did the Fascists deal with illegal trading of food?
Food markets were placed under Fascist control - harsh punishment, including the death penalty, was used to deal with those hoarding food
Why did food shortages grow worse in 1941?
As young farmers and labourers were conscripted into the army, food shortages became worse
What did Germany demand of Italy (foodwise)?
Germany demanded that Italy should continue to export food to Germany, making food shortages and the black market larger than ever
How many civilian workers were sent to work in Germany in 1941, further disrupting the economy?
200,000 were sent in 1941 from Italy to Germany
Which industrial workers suffered most from Allied bombing attacks which became more intense in 1942?
Industrial workers in Genoa, Milan and Turin suffered most from more intense Allied bombing in 1942
What were normal working hours in April 1942?
12 - 14 hours a day were normal by 1942
Who did the Fascist controlled press conduct virulent campaigns against by 1942?
The Fascist controlled press conducted virulent campaigns against defeatists and grumblers who were accused of links with the British and Communism
What were there a series of short strikes about in 1943?
In 1943, there were a series of short strikes protesting at wage levels and living conditions
What did defeats on the Soviet and North African fronts lead to?
Defeats on the Soviet and North African fronts in 1942 led to a serious loss of civilian morale as the propaganda machine became less convincing
What did the worsening military news do to the Fascist party?
After the military defeats, the Fascist Party collapsed - initially at local level and then nationally. In 1942, with the war in South Africa being lost, public support was ebbing away
What prompted the Fascists to persuade Mussolini to call a meeting of the Fascist Grand Council in 1943?
The ALlied landings in Sicily in 1943 prompted the Fascist Party to persuade Mussolini to call the Fascist Grand Council, 1943, for the first time since 1939
What did the Fascist Grand Council of 1943 vote?
The Fascist Grand Council of 1943 voted by 19 votes to 7 to ask the King to return to them the power Mussolini had taken for himself
How did Mussolini respond to the King stripping him of his powers in 1943 and returning them to Parliament?
The next day, Mussolini tried to override the decision
How did the King react to Mussolini trying to override the decision, 1943?
The King stood up to Mussolini and was arrested the next day to be replaced by an aged soldier, Marshal Badoglio