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Flashcards in Nasal Anatomy Deck (19):
1

What is the function of the Nose?

Respiration, Filtration, Humidification, Warming
Olfaction
Reception of sinus and eye secretions

2

Describe the external nose structure

Dorsum (bridge) root to tip

1/3 bony
2/3 cartilaginous

Nasal bones
Frontal process of maxillae
Nasal part of frontal bones

3

What is the cartilage of the external nose?

Septal cartilage
2 lateral cartilages
2 alar cartilages (hold nostrils open)

Deformity by trauma or fracture

4

What forms the midline partition of the internal nose?

Septal cartilage
Perpendicular plate of the ethmoid
Vomer

5

What causes nasal septum deviation?

Trauma
Congenital (bone grows faster than cartilage)

6

Explain septal haematoma

Septum fracture bleeds
Blood builds under mucosa
This build up of blood strips the mucosa from the cartilage
This haematoma cuts off blood supply to cartilage
Cartilage may become infected or will die

Infection can cause septal abscess
This can drain into sinus and brain
Quite serious

Must be drained

7

Describe the structure of the inner nose

Lateral walls = turbinates (humidify and warm air)
-Superior
-Middle
-Inferior
-Also meati

Roof- cribriform plate
Floor - hard palate

8

What is the clinical relevance of the turbinates?

Swelling due to rhinitis or infection
Can block the nose
Usually treated with steroid sprays

Surgery unusual these days

9

Describe the nasopharynx

Functionally part of the nose

Muco-ciliary lining

Bounded by the: choana (posterior nostrils), sphenoid sinuses, prevertebral fascia and muscle, soft palate

Important contents = Eustachian opening and adenoids

10

Explain the blood supply to the nose

Sphenopalatine artery - from maxillary branch of the external carotid
-Also Greater Palatine Artery
-Lateral nasal branches of facial artery
-Ethmoid arteries (anterior and posterior) from the internal carotid system

Capillary plexus on mucosal lining of septum- Wittles area (majority of nose bleeds)

11

What is the clinical name for a nose bleed?

Epistaxis

12

Explain the nerve supply of the nose

Fibres from neuro-olfactory epithelium -> olfactory nerve
-hyposmia or anosmia via:
---Trauma
---Virus
---Tumour
---(rhinitis)

Infraorbital nerve (sensory)
-Branch of 5th cranial
-Parasthesia in: trauma, iatrogenic damage, tumour

13

What is Hyposmia

Reduced ability to smell

14

Describe the sinuses

Air filled
Continuous muco-ciliary lining with nose

1 Frontal
2 Maxillary
2 Ethmoid
1 Sphenoid

Drainage is by natural mucocillary pathways

15

What is the important relation of the frontal sinus?

Anterior cranial fossa

16

What is the important relations of the Ethmoid sinuses?

Anterior cranial fossa (cribriform plate)

17

What are the important relations of the Maxillary sinuses?

Orbits
Oral cavity/teeth

18

what are the important relations of the Sphenoid sinus

Optic nerve
Internal carotid artery
Pituitary gland

19

What is the histology of the nose?

Continuous mucosal lining with sinuses
-Rhino-sinisitis

Mucosa:
-Columnar, ciliated
-Squamo-columnar junction
-nasal hair in vestibule