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Flashcards in Week 3 - Wet Room Deck (62):
1

Name the 7 bones making up the orbit

Lacrimal Bone
Ethmoidal bone
Frontal bone
Sphenoid bone (greater wing + lesser wing)
Zygomatic bone
Maxillary bone

2

What passes through the optic foramen?

Optic nerve
Ophthalmic artery

3

What passes through the Superior Orbital Fissure?

Motor nerves of eye:
-III nerve (occulomotor)
-IV nerve (trochlear)
-VI nerve (abducens)

Opthalmic division of V nerve
Ophthalmic veins

4

What passes through the Inferior Orbital Fissure?

Maxillary division of V nerve

5

What paranasal air sinuses are in close proximity to the walls of the orbit?

Frontal sinus
Ethmoidal sinus
Maxillary sinus

6

What are the main contents of the orbit?

Eyes
Extrinsic ocular muscles
Ligaments supporting the eye
Optic nerve
Branches of ophthalmic artery
The lacrimal apparatus
Adipose fat

7

What makes up the outer fibrous layer of the eye?

Cornea
Sclera

This is a complete layer

8

What makes up the middle vascular layer of the eye?

Iris
Ciliary body
Choroid

This is incomplete anteriorly.
Anterior aperture (in iris) is called pupil

9

What makes up the inner sensory layer of the eye?

Retina

Is present posteriorly but anteriorly it stops short just in from of the equator of the eye.

10

What part of the eye produces (secretes) aqueous humour?

Ciliary body

11

Name the intrinsic muscle of the eye

Ciliaris
Constrictor pupillae
Dilatory pupillae

12

What is the location, action and innervation of the ciliaris muscle?

Location: Ciliary body

Action: Accommodation

Innervation: Parasympathetic via cranial nerve IIIn

13

What is the location action and innervation of the constrictor papillae?

Location: Pupillary border of iris

Action: constrictor

Innervation: Parasympathetic via cranial nerve IIIn

14

What is the location, action and innervation of the dilator papillae muscle?

Location: Radically running muscle in iris

Action: Dilator

Innervation: Sympathetic innervation

15

What produces the eye movements?

Extrinsic muscles of the eye

16

Describe intorsion and extorsion of the eye

These movements occur when the head is tilted.
In order to keep the eyeballs focussed on an object the eyes rotate in the opposite direction.

When the top of the eye rotated towards the nose it is called as intorsion, and when it rotates away from the nose it is extortion.

17

Describe the movements of the eye

Elevation: looking up
Depression: looking down
Abduction: looking laterally
Adduction: looking medially
Intortion: rotation of top of eye towards nose
Extortion: rotation of top of eye away from nose

18

How many extrinsic muscles of the eye are there?

There are 6 muscles which move the eye - four of these have a straight course (recti) and two are oblique.

In addition the elevator of the upper eyelid is also considered as an extrinsic eye muscle even though it has no action on the eyeball itself.

19

What is the action of the medial rectus?

Adduction

20

What is the action of the lateral rectus?

Abduction

21

What is the action of the superior rectus?

Elevation
Adduction
Intortion

RAD SIN
Rectus = adduction, Superior = intortion

22

What is the action of the inferior rectus?

Depression
Adduction
Extortion

23

What is the action of the superior oblique?

Depression
Adduction
Intorsion

Remember obliques attach to posterior of eye

24

What is the action of the inferior oblique?

Elevation
Abduction
Extorsion

25

Which is the only muscle that does not arise from the posterior aspect of the orbit?

Inferior oblique

26

What are the ligaments that prevent over-adduction and over-abduction of the eye respectively?

Lateral check ligament
Medial check ligament

27

What is the function of the suspensory ligament of the eye?

Holds the lens

28

Name the branch of the internal carotid artery that supplies the orbit and the eye

Ophthalmic Artery

29

Which foramina in the orbit do the ophthalmic veins pass through to enter into the cavernous venous sinus in the cranial cavity?

Optic Foramen

30

Where are the orbit lymphatics located?

There are no lymphatic in the orbit

31

What nerve provides parasympathetic innervation to the lacrimal gland?
What is a good rule to remember this?

Facial nerve

The facial nerve provides all parasympathetic innervation to glands in the head and neck bar the parotid

32

Into which meatus of the nasal cavity does the lacrimal gland drain via its duct?

Inferior meatus

33

What type of joint is found between the ossicles?

Synovial

34

Which ossicle is in contact with the tympanic membrane?

Malleus

35

Which ossicle is in contact with the oval window?

Stapes

36

Name the two muscles related to the ossicles

Tensor tympani
Stapedius

37

What is the action of the tensor tympani?

Pulls handle of malleus medially, tensing the tympanic membrane + reducing the amplitude of vibrations.

Protects the middle ear from very loud noises

38

What is the action of the stapedius?

Tightens annular ligament + reduces the oscillatory range
Also prevents excessive movement of stapes

39

Name two areas with which the cavity of the middle ear communicates.

Nasopharynx
Mastoid air cells

40

In which part of the temporal bone do the middle and inner ear lie?

Petrous part

41

The inner ear consists of a series of bone lined chambers called the bony labyrinth.
Inside the bony labyrinth lies a series of membranous chambers called the membranous labyrinth.
What are the fluids that lie within the bony and membranous labyrinth?

Bony labyrinth = perilymph

Membranous labyrinth = endolymph

42

What is the function of the cochlea and the semicircular canals?

Cochlea = part of internal ear concerned with hearing
Semicircular canals = part of the ear concerned with balance

43

Through which foramen does the facial nerve exit the posterior cranial fossa?

Internal Acoustic foramen

44

What cranial nerves exit the posterior cranial fossa through the internal auditory meatus?

Vestibulocochlear nerve
Facial nerve

45

How does the facial nerve travel through the middle ear?

Runs in a canal (facial canal) on the medial wall of the middle ear cavity.

46

While in the middle ear cavity the facial nerve gives off the chorda tympani nerve which carries:

Parasympathetic (preganglionic) efferent fibres destined for submandibular and sublingual salivary glands.
These are secretomotor

Sensory fibres carrying the special sense of taste.
This supplies the front of the tongue

47

Explain lymphatics broadly

Like other regions of the body, the head and neck has an extensive network of small lymphatic capillaries that drain tissue fluid.
This fluid passes through regional lymph nodes and also through a terminal group of lymph nodes, the deep cervical lymph nodes, before being returned to the venous circulation.

48

What are the deep cervical lymph nodes?

The deep cervical lymph nodes are a group of lymph nodes which are found as a linked chain of nodes around the internal jugular vein, and within the fascia of the carotid sheath.
The chain of lymph nodes may extend from the base of the skull to the root of the neck at the thoracic inlet.

49

Explain the formation of the jugular lymphatic trunk

At the inferior end of the deep cervical chain of lymph nodes, the efferent lymphatic vessels join together to form the jugular lymph trunk on each side.

50

Where do the efferent lymphatics from the jugular lymph trunks drain to into?

On the right side: Enter the junction of IJV and subclavian vein.
On the left side: Thoracic duct

Drains into deep cervical nodes

51

What is the location of the parotid node and where does it drain lymph from?

Location: on or in the parotid gland

Where it drains lymph from:
-Scalp around the parotid gland
-Lateral parts of the eyelids,
-Middle ear

Drains into deep cervical nodes

52

What is the location of the buccal nodes and where do they drain lymph from?

Location: Over buccinator muscle

Where it drains lymph from:
-Cheek region

Drains into deep cervical nodes

53

Where is the location of the submental nodes and where do they drain lymph from?

Location: anteriorly just under mandible

Where it drains lymph from:
-Anterior tongue tip
-Central part of the floor of the mouth and chin

Drains into deep cervical nodes

54

Where is the location of the submandibular nodes and where do they drain lymph from?

Location: Below lower border of the body of mandible

Where it drains lymph from:
-Front of scalp
-Nose, lips,
-Sir sinuses: ethmoidal, frontal, maxillary
-Teeth and gums
-Anterior tongue, floor of mouth
-Efferent lymphatics from submittal nodes

Drains into deep cervical nodes

55

Where is the location o the mastoid nodes and where do they drain lymph from?

Location: overlie mastoid process

Where it drains lymph from:
-Middle region of scalp
-External auditory meatus

Drains into deep cervical nodes

56

Where is the location of the occipital nodes and where do they drain lymph from?

Location: Overlie occipital process

Where it drains lymph from:
-Back of the scalp

Drains into deep cervical nodes

57

Where does lymphatic drainage of the face and scalp drain?

Into deep cervical nodes

58

What is the location of the anterior cervical nodes and where do they drain lymph from?

Location: lie along anterior jugular veins

Where they drain lymph from:
-Superficial structures of anterior neck

59

What is the location of the superficial cervical nodes and where do they drain lymph from?

Location: lie along external jugular vein

Where they drain lymph from:
-Parotid nodes
-Angle of the mandible, structures that lie at the junction between the neck, the face and the scalp

60

What is the location of the retropharyngeal nodes and where do they drain lymph from?

Location: Lie between the pharynx and the vertebral bodies

Where they drain lymph from:
-Nasopharynx
-Auditory tube
-Upper cervical vertebral column

61

What is the location of the laryngeal nodes and where do they drain lymph from?

Location: lie around the cricothyroid ligament

Where they drain lymph from:
-Larynx and adjacent structures

62

What is the location of the tracheal lymph nodes and where do they drain lymph from?

Location: around trachea

Where they drain lymph from:
-Trachea
-Thyroid gland