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Flashcards in Week 1 - Dry Room Deck (48):
1

What are the 4 compartments of the neck?

Vertebral Compartment: Cervical vertebrae and postural muscles (Prevertebral and postvertebral muscles)

Vascular Compartments (one on each side): Contains major blood vessels and the vagus nerve

Visceral compartment: contains thyroid, parathyroid glands (and part of thymus), Pharynx, Larynx, Trachea and oesophagus

These are enclosed by an outer musculofascial collar

2

How many cervical vertebrae are there?

7

3

What kind of joint is present between the occipital condoles and C1 (atlas)?

Synovial

4

What kind of joint is present between C1 and C2 at the odontoid peg?

Pivot

5

What structures pass through the foramen transversarium?

Vertebral artery and vein

6

What is the vertebra prominens?

C7

7

What is the special feature of the spines of cervical vertebrae?

Bifid

8

What curvature exists in the cervical portion of the vertebral column?

Lordotic curve

9

What are the boundaries of the anterior triangle?

Mandible (superiorly)
Anterior border of sternocleidomastoid (posteriorly)
Midline of neck (anteriorly)

10

What are some of the contents of the anterior triangle?

Common carotid
ECA and ICA
Facial artery
Hypoglossal, Vagus and glossopharyngeal nerves

11

What are the boundaries of the posterior triangle?

Posterior border of the sternocleidomastoid (anteriorly)
Anterior border of the trapezius (Posteriorly)
Clavicle (inferiorly)

12

What are the contents of the posterior triangle?

Accessory nerve
Occipital artery
Lymph nodes
Cervical nerve plexus
External jugular vein

13

What are the proximal and distal attachments of the sternocleidomastoid muscle?

Medial 1/3rd of the clavicle
Anterior surface of the manubrium

14

What are the actions of the trapezius?

Retraction, Superior rotation, Elevation and depression of the clavicle

15

Which cranial nerve innervates the sternocleidomastoid and trapezius?
In which triangle of the neck is it found?

Accessory nerve (CN XI)
Posterior triangle

16

What are the boundaries of the submittal triangle?

-Anterior Belly of digastrium (posterior)
-Midline (anterior)
-Body of hyoid bone (inferior)

17

What are the boundaries of the digastric/ submandibular?

-Mandible (above)
-Posterior belly of digastric (below)
-Anterior belly of digastric (front)

18

What artery and gland are contained in the digastric triangle?

Facial artery
Submandibular gland

19

What are the boundaries of the carotid?

-Anterior border of sternocleidomastoid (posterior)
-Superior belly of omohyoid (anteroinferiorly)
-Posterior belly of digastric (anterosuperiorly)

20

What is contained in the carotid sheath?

Contents of a neurovascular sheath

21

What are the boundaries of the muscular triangle?

Median line of neck
Sternocleidomastoid
Omohyoid

22

What is the contents of the muscular triangle?

Strap muscles of the neck

23

The ventral rami of the lower cervical spinal nerves emerge from between the scalene muscles that form the floor of the posterior triangle of the neck.

What do these rami collectively form?

Cervical plexus

24

Arterial blood to the head and neck comes from the common carotid artery (CCA).
Which artery is the CCA a branch of?

Brachiocephalic trunk on the on the right side

Aorta on the left side

25

Where does the common carotid artery run?

In the anterior triangle of the neck within the carotid sheath

26

Apart from the common carotid artery what other structures occupy the carotid sheath?

Internal jugular vein
Vagus nerve

27

At what level does the CCA divide into the external and internal carotid arteries in the neck?

Superior border of the thyroid cartilage

28

Which of the external and internal carotid arteries gives off branches in the neck?

Which is the most lateral?

ECA

ECA

29

What are the two terminal branches of the ECA (given off in the face) and within which structure are they given off?

Maxillary
Superficial temporal artery

Parotid gland

30

What is the jugular venous sinus?

Drains the brain

Gives of the internal jugular vein

31

What foramen does the internal jugular vein emerge from?

Jugular foramen

32

Which vein of the upper limb does the IJV merge with and what is the name of the vein that is formed?

Subclavian

Forms the brachiocephalic veins

33

What does the external jugular vein drain?

Its a superficial vein which drains the scalp and face

34

In relation to the sternocleidomastoid muscle, where does the EJV run?

Deep

35

Which vein does the external jugular vein drain?

Subclavian vein

36

Where does the vagus nerve lie in relation to the vascular contents of the sheath?

Between internal jugular vein and common carotid artery

37

What is the route of the phrenic nerve?

Arises from the cervical plexus in the neck and travels through the neck into the thorax to supply the diaphragm

38

Whats unique about the hyoid bone?

Hyoid is the only bone in the body which is not articulated with another bone, and is also quite easily damaged

39

Name the muscles/ sets of muscles attached to the hyoid bone?

Suprahyoid muscles
-Mylohyoid
-Geniohyoid
-Stylohyoid
-Digastric muscles

Infrahyoid muscles (strap muscles)
-Sternohyoid
-Omohyoid
-Sternohyoid
-Thyrohyoid

40

What is the cervical plexus?

Somatic nerve plexus

41

What are the vertebral root values of the cervical plexus?

C1-C4

42

Between which two muscles do the roots of the cervical plexus emerge?

Anterior and Middle scalene

43

Name a motor nerve that emerges from the cervical plexus and travels down through the thorax

Phrenic nerve

44

What is the ansa cervicalis?

Loop of nerves
Innervate most of the infra hyoid muscles

45

What is the thyroid gland?

Endocrine gland located in the front of the neck

46

What are the anatomical parts of the thyroid gland

Left and right lobes
Isthmus

47

At what level (in relation to the trachea or larynx) does the isthmus of the thyroid gland lie?

Anterior to 2nd and 3rd tracheal rings

48

In which of the 4 compartments of the neck does the thyroid gland lie?

Visceral