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Flashcards in Week 2 - Dry Room Deck (53):
1

The vestibule of the oral cavity refers to the space...

Between lips and cheeks superficially
Teeth and gingivae deeply

2

The muscle muscle innervated by the facial nerve that lies in the lateral walls of the oral cavity is?

The Buccinator

3

The muscle of facial expression whose contraction causes closing/ pursing of the lips is?

Orbicularis Oris

4

The posterior opening of the oral cavity is called?

The oropharyngeal isthmus

5

What is the tongue?
What are its functions?

The tongue is a muscular organ covered by mucous membrane.

Its functions are:
-Moving food during chewing
-Taste
-Articulation

6

How is the tongue divided?

It is divided into an anterior 2/3 and posterior 1/3 by a V shaped sulcus called the terminal sulcus

7

The anterior 1/3 of the dorsal surface of the tongue has surface projections of the mucous membrane that makes it rough.
What are they called?
What are the 3 types?

Papillae
-Filiform
-Fungiform
-Vallate

Taste buds are present in these surface projections except on the filiform type

8

The posterior 1/3 dorsal surface of the tongue has surface elevations produced by submucosal lymphoid tissue collection.
What is this called?

Lingual tonsils

9

What covers the inferior surface of the tongue?

Smooth mucous membrane

10

What is the name of the fold of mucous membrane that fixes the tongue to the floor of the mouth?

Frenulum

11

What provides general sensory innervation to the anterior 2/3 of the tongue?

Lingual nerve = branch of mandibular division of the trigeminal nerve

12

What provides taste sensation to the anterior 2/3 of the tongue?

Chorda tympani branch of the facial nerve

13

What provides general sensory innervation to the posterior 1/3 of the tongue?

Glossopharyngeal (IX) Nerve

14

What provides taste sensation to the posterior 1/3 of the tongue?

Glossopharyngeal (IX) nerve

15

What are the two types of muscles of the tongue?

Intrinsic muscles that originate and insert within the tongue
Extrinsic muscles that attach from the tongue to surrounding bones or soft palate

16

On a sagittal section of the tongue which specific area are the intrinsic muscle fibres mainly concentrated?

Inner surface of the body of the mandible

17

What do the extrinsic and intrinsic fibres of the muscles of the tongue do?

Extrinsic = change position of the tongue
Intrinsic = change the shape of the tongue

18

Name the 4 extrinsic muscles of the tongue

Genioglossus
Hyoglossus
Styloglossus
Palatoglossus

19

What is the attachment and action of the genioglossis?

Attachment:
-Inner surface of the mandible close to the midline

Action:
-Protrudes tongue to the opposite side

20

What is the attachment and action of the hyoglossus?

Attachment:
-Upper border of body of mandible

Action:
-Depresses tongue

21

What is the attachment and action of the styloglossus?

Attachment:
-Styloid process

Action:
-Retrudes tongue and curls its sides

22

What is the attachment and action of the palatoglossus?

Attachment:
-Soft palate

Action:
-Elevation of posterior tongue

23

What nerves supply the intrinsic and extrinsic muscles of the tongue?

ALL muscles supplied by hypoglossal nerve (Cr. N. XII)

EXCEPT:
-Palatoglossus (Vagus nerve)

24

Name the 3 large paired salivary glands

Parotid salivary gland
Submandibular salivary gland
Submental salivary gland

25

What is the nerve supply of the 3 salivary glands?

Parotid = glossopharyngeal nerve

Submandibular and submental = chorda tympani from the facial nerve

26

The roof of the mouth is made up of the bony hard palate, posterior to which is the soft palate.

What two bones form the hard palate?

Palatine process of maxillae
Palatine bone

27

Name the 5 muscles in the soft palate

Tensor veli palatini
Levator Veli Palatini
Palatoglossus
Palatopharyngeus
Musculus uvulae

28

What is the nerve supply to the muscles of the soft palate?

Branch of mandibular division of facial nerve
Pharyngeal branch of vagus via pharyngeal plexus

29

What is the collective action of the muscles of the soft palate?

Seal off oral passage from nasopharynx
Seal off oral cavity from nasal passage (breath through nose while mouth is open)

30

What structures do the palatoglossus and palatopharyngeal muscles form in the mouth?
What lies between these structures?

Palatopharyngeal arch posteriorly
Palatoglossal arch anteriorly

Palatine tonsils

31

What is the pharynx?

The pharynx is a fibromuscular tube that is important in swallowing (to direct food into the oesophagus) and in breathing (to direct air into the larynx)

32

What are the 3 parts of the pharynx?

The nasopharynx
The oropharynx
The laryngopharynx

33

What forms the roof of the nasopharynx?

Sphenoid
Partly vommer and claris also

34

In relation to the larynx the laryngopharynx lies...?

Posteriorly

35

What prevents food entering the nose during swallowing?

Soft palate

36

What prevents food entering the larynx during swallowing?

Epiglottus

37

What are the 3 layers of the pharynx?

Outer muscular layer
Middle fibrous layer
Inner muscular layer

38

What is the structure of the outer muscular layer of the pharynx?

Outer circular layer and inner longitudinal layer

Outer circular layer (3 constrictor muscles)
-Superior constrictor
-Middle constrictor
-Inferior constrictor

Inner longitudinal layer
-Stylopharyngeus
-Salpingopharyngeus
-Palatopharyngeus

39

What is the structure of the middle fibrous layer of the pharynx?

Merges with the deep fascia of the muscles and fills in gaps between muscles

40

What innervates the pharynx?

Pharyngeal Plexus:
-Sensory = Cr. N. IX
-Motor = Vagus

41

What is Waldeyer's ring?

Pharyngeal lymphoid ring = collection of lymphoid tide that protects the entrance into the oropharynx

42

What is the function of the larynx?

Larynx = voice box (produces sound)
Protective inlet to the respiratory system

43

Which structures are the larynx continuous with superiorly and inferiorly?

Superiorly = pharynx
Inferiorly = trachea

44

Which cartilage of the larynx forms the "adam's apple" in males?

Thyroid cartilage

45

Which cartilage of the larynx is paired?

Arytenoid cartilage

46

Which cartilage of the larynx is a complete ring?

Cricoid cartilage

47

What type of connective tissue forms the spaces between the laryngeal cartilages?

Dense connective tissue

48

Which laryngeal membrane lies inferior to the vocal cords?
Why is it important to know this?

Cricothyroid membrane

Due to its position inferior to the vocal cords, this membrane is sometimes pierced in emergency situations when acute swelling of the vocal cords causes stridor (anaphylactic reaction)

49

What structures form the laryngeal inlet?

Epiglottis
Aryepiglottic Folds
Arytenoid cartilage
Vestibular Folds

50

The lumen of the larynx is divided into 3 parts.
What are they?

The vestibule, or upper part, is the area between the laryngeal inlet and the vestibular folds (or false vocal cords)

The middle part lies between the vestibular folds and the (true) vocal cords (laryngeal ventricle)

The lower part extends from the vocal cords to the lower border of the cricoid cartilage

51

What is the function of the vocal cords?
What muscles allow this?

The vocal folds are important in voice production.

Intrinsic muscles of the larynx control movement of the vocal fold as well as controlling the diameter of the laryngeal inlet.

52

What is the nerve supply of the intrinsic muscles of the larynx?

Recurrent laryngeal nerve.

Except for the CRICOTHYROID MUSCLE.
This muscle is supplied by the superior laryngeal nerve, also a branch of the vagus nerve.

53

What is the sensory nerve supply to the mucous membrane of the larynx?

Internal laryngeal nerve
(Branch of superior laryngeal nerve)